Friday, May 31, 2019

Corporate Average Fuel Economy Essay -- essays research papers

collective mean(a) Fuel EconomyThe foreshadowed Market Failures of the mid 1970s gave way to CorporateAverage Fuel Economy, regulation which would call for new standards inautomobile arouse efficiency. The market failures hinged on a number of outsidevariables which could have had a drastic effect on domestic markets.Resource Scarcity drove the American public to call for a more efficientmeans of managing its imagery use due to a) oil embargos on nondomesticproducts and b) skyhigh prices at the pump.Conservation of the worlds non-renewable resources cams to theforeground with a) higher pump prices and b) forecasted resourceexpenditure before the year 2000.With Corporate Average Fuel Economy in place the market failures shouldbe partially alleviated and pressures due to restricted internationalresources should subside. The regulated fuel efficiency should support themarket to resume its national flow and regain stability without furthermanipulation.Reliance on imported fuels wou ld be minimized because of the a)decreased demand for fuel utilisation and b) lowered fuel demandallowed for domestic producers to meet the basic needs of the public.Maximum fuel efficiency would a) cut the amount of fuel consumption thusnullifying high pump prices and b) raise the level of conservati...

Thursday, May 30, 2019

America And The Ludendorrf Offensive :: essays research papers

The Entry of the USA and the Failure of the Ludendorff Offensive.The Entry of the USA.Both of these computes were very important in determining the military issue of the war. The the Statesn factor was important because when America joined the war, it was a critical period for the assort (April 1917). At the succession they joined, Britain only had six weeks supply of corn, the French armies were exhausted later on Verdun and French morale was so low that ten divisions had mutinied so the American involve manpowert boosted the allies morale. At the time the Russian army was disintegrating by and by the February revolution so the German army for the first time, could transfer all their troops on the Eastern front to the westward front, so for the first time in the war having numerical superiority on the Western front, also because of the treaty of Brest-Litovich the Germans had much more guns and equipment that the allies. Also at the time, the Italians contri simplyion was mu ch modify by the battle of Caporetto in November, so the situation at the time for the allies was quite dire The US navy, when America entered the war, sent lots of destroyers to Ireland to help with anti-submarine patrols. Also, US Admiral Simms enabled Prime Minister Lloyd George to overcome Admiralty resistance to the convoy system so cutting our ship losings from twenty v percent to one percent, which was vital, if Britain was to stay in the war. Also America closed off the submarine threat from Germany by laying a big tap barrage across the North Sea. Although it was not until June 1918 before the Germans had enough troops in Europe to do any serious malign to the Germans and it was not until family that the Americans were strong enough to launch a major offensive (the Meuse-Argonne battle that engaged 1.2 million Americans for 47 days). The US armies also gave the allies the margin of achievement by giving us many men and guns that we would not have otherwise had. I.e. I n April 1918 the Germans had 300,000 more men that we did on the Western front but by November 1918, the allies had 600,000 more men than the Germans on the Western front. This was in part because that Germans were losing many lives through the Ludendorff offensive but in the main because the Americans poured many men in to Europe.America And The Ludendorrf Offensive essays research papers The Entry of the USA and the Failure of the Ludendorff Offensive.The Entry of the USA.Both of these factors were very important in determining the outcome of the war. The American factor was important because when America joined the war, it was a critical period for the allies (April 1917). At the time they joined, Britain only had six weeks supply of corn, the French armies were exhausted after Verdun and French morale was so low that ten divisions had mutinied so the American involvement boosted the allies morale. At the time the Russian army was disintegrating after the February revolution so the German army for the first time, could transfer all their troops on the Eastern front to the Western front, so for the first time in the war having numerical superiority on the Western front, also because of the treaty of Brest-Litovich the Germans had much more guns and equipment that the allies. Also at the time, the Italians division was much weakened by the battle of Caporetto in November, so the situation at the time for the allies was quite dire The US navy, when America entered the war, sent lots of destroyers to Ireland to help with anti-submarine patrols. Also, US Admiral Simms enabled Prime Minister Lloyd George to overcome Admiralty resistance to the convoy system so cutting our ship losses from twenty five percent to one percent, which was vital, if Britain was to stay in the war. Also America closed off the submarine threat from Germany by laying a big mine barrage across the North Sea. Although it was not until June 1918 before the Germans had enough troops in E urope to do any serious damage to the Germans and it was not until September that the Americans were strong enough to launch a major offensive (the Meuse-Argonne battle that engaged 1.2 million Americans for 47 days). The US armies also gave the allies the margin of Victory by giving us many men and guns that we would not have otherwise had. I.e. In April 1918 the Germans had 300,000 more men that we did on the Western front but by November 1918, the allies had 600,000 more men than the Germans on the Western front. This was in part because that Germans were losing many lives through the Ludendorff offensive but mainly because the Americans poured many men in to Europe.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

The Glass Menagerie :: essays research papers

The play the chicken feed Menagerie supports the theme of illusions. A zoo, a zoo, refers to a group of savage creatures. Since the creatures are glass, they are very fragile and not real. The title specifically refers to Lauras collection of glass animals mainly horses. To escape the harshness of reality, Laura spends hours playing with the menagerie this is an imaginary world for her. It is not only Laura, it is all of the Wingfields, they are all fragile enough to break easily. They burn with the slow and impeccable fires of human desperation. The Glass Menagerie is a sad story of hopelessness and tragedy, a story of human nature and how it affects peoples lives. The story itself may not seem tragic plainly the social downfall of the Wingfields in itself is tragic. Williams shows the Southern family in decline, with certain members holding desperately to past visions of grandeur. Amanda Wingfield desperately clings to her romanticized memories of her southern past. Williams m akes it clear that her memories are just mere(prenominal) illusions. The south has a tragic history, just like Amanda and Rose.As you read into the play, you understand that the Wingfields live in a life of fantasy wrapped in tragedy. Many aspects of their life, I believe, are very depressing and heartbreaking. Such is the case of Amanda Wingfield. A southern girl, who had the opportunity to marry very rich husbands. She takes a persecute turn and marries a drunk who deserts he, there is no coming back from the one mistake. Everyday she reminisces about her past life and how glorious it in one case was. Tennessee Williams uses this as a perfect way to compare their present life to their past, creating a feeling of misery and pain. These feelings of misery and hopelessness are enforced by her childrens sorrows and wretched lives. As Laura develops a inferiority complex after going to school for one day, the reader develops a sense of compassion.

Norma Rae and A Respectable Trade :: Films Movies

Norma Rae and A Respectable TradeIn this essay I shall compare the two frugal musical arrangements of capitalism and slavery within the context of films, Norma Rae and A Respectable Trade. In the film Norma Rae, workers in a textile mill attempt to form a union with the leadership of a disgruntled employee named Norma Rae. In a Respectable Trade, a woman of the aristocracy marries a slave trader named Josiah when she comes to realize that her snip spent in her uncles estate must come to an end due to the social aspirations of her aunt and that because she has no talent as a g overness she has very a few(prenominal) options left. This series, from the book of the same name, is about the relationship between her (Frances) and her slave, Mehuru from Oyo in addition to being about the several other interpersonal and economic relationships occurring within the system of slavery in 18th century Bristol. In Norma Rae, the equipment and other resources necessary for textile production in the town were owned by the textile company. The absolute majority of the population did not corroborate any accommodate over the productive resources necessary for the development of enterprises. This is consistent with capitalism where there is a concentration of control over productive resources by a small subset of society, in this case the textile mill. In a Respectable Trade, the aristocracy had majority control over the means for production. It was only through them that the merchants could for example get the monetary means to expand business or start out if they were not fortunate rich to have inherited some means of trade as Josiah and Sara did. The common folk of Bristol, England did not control the means by which they could have started their own businesses. present too, the control over productive resources is concentrated in the hands of the few. So we see that slavery shares this quality with capitalism and as yet I have not cited any unique properties of these two class processes. One important and defining difference between the two though is that in slavery, human beings overly constitute a productive resource that can be bought and sold and done with as one would a piece of furniture. Capitalist and Slave scotch Systems have singular ways of resolving the question of how to get workers to labor.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Challenges of Living with Diabetes Essays -- Health Medicine

A long-term health condition can also be referred to as a chronic illness and it can be utilise to define recurring conditions such as asthma, arthritis, and diabetes.When living with a long-term health condition it can for some muckle present them with many sensitive challenges. Not only does it incur time for them to adapt and accept their illness alone also they may feel affected not just animal(prenominal)ly, but psychologically, culturally, and sometimes even personally such as financial or relationships with family and friends. In this essay, I will examine in turn the main challenges people with diabetes face.Sometimes with diabetes, a person may feel an array of emotions when their illness has been diagnosed this can vary from existence confused, and anxious about their health and future, to feeling saddle sore and frustration with their own bodies.It is also common that many people who have long-term health conditions can also be susceptible to depression and centering when attempting to deal with the aspects of their illness, such as being reliant on insulin injections or having to take care about what they eat and drink. As explained in an article by W.H Polonsky. (K101, Resources 3, pg19 )Many individuals may feel as if they have lost control of their everyday routines, or are somewhat defeated when following treatments programmes and not being able to see an improvement in health. Recently healthcare professionals recognized that if they provide patients with well-defined, straightforward information and knowledge about their illness, it could encourage people to take more of an involved role in managing their condition, such as setting achievable goals, or becoming better practiced at monitoring and managing insulin levels. Thi... ...e boundaries of the physical situation but also that of their psychological status too.Works CitedLawton, J., Ahmad, N., Hanna, L., Douglas, M. (2006) Pakistani and Indian patients experience of Scot tish diabetes services a qualitative study. In K101 An introduction to health and social care, resources, Block 2, pg. 15, Milton Keynes, The open university.NHS, (2010) Diabetes NHS choices, Available http// Last accessed 4th Nov 2010. Polonsky, W.H (2006). Encouraging effective self-management in diabetes. In k101 An introduction to health and social care, resources, Block 3, pg19, Milton Keynes, The open university.The open university (2008) K101 An introduction to health and social care, block 1, unit 2, Illness, health and care, pg. 84, Milton Keynes, The open university.

Challenges of Living with Diabetes Essays -- Health Medicine

A long-term wellness condition potful also be referred to as a chronic illness and it evict be used to define recurring conditions such as asthma, arthritis, and diabetes.When living with a long-term health condition it can for some people present them with many new challenges. Not only does it take time for them to adapt and accept their illness but also they may feel affected not just physically, but psychologically, culturally, and sometimes even personally such as financial or relationships with family and friends. In this essay, I result examine in turn the main challenges people with diabetes face.Sometimes with diabetes, a person may feel an array of emotions when their illness has been diagnosed this can vary from universe confused, and anxious nearly their health and future, to feeling resentment and frustration with their own bodies.It is also common that many people who have long-term health conditions can also be susceptible to depression and stress when atte mpting to deal with the aspects of their illness, such as being reliant on insulin injections or having to take c be about what they eat and drink. As explained in an article by W.H Polonsky. (K101, Resources 3, pg19 )Many individuals may feel as if they have lost control of their everyday routines, or are somewhat defeated when following treatments programmes and not being able to see an improvement in health. Recently healthcare professionals recognized that if they provide patients with well-defined, straightforward development and knowledge about their illness, it could encourage people to take more of an involved role in managing their condition, such as setting achievable goals, or sightly better practiced at monitoring and managing insulin levels. Thi... ...e boundaries of the physical situation but also that of their psychological status too.Works CitedLawton, J., Ahmad, N., Hanna, L., Douglas, M. (2006) Pakistani and Indian patients experience of Scottish diabetes servic es a qualitative study. In K101 An introduction to health and social care, resources, Block 2, pg. 15, Milton Keynes, The open university.NHS, (2010) Diabetes NHS choices, Available http// Last accessed 4th Nov 2010. Polonsky, W.H (2006). encourage effective self-management in diabetes. In k101 An introduction to health and social care, resources, Block 3, pg19, Milton Keynes, The open university.The open university (2008) K101 An introduction to health and social care, block 1, unit 2, Illness, health and care, pg. 84, Milton Keynes, The open university.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Charles River Jazz Festival

Decision tree for Friday pressing Mr. Ward is trying to find on how many CDs to press on the first night of the festival. His intuition combined with his experience allowed him to make some predictions of demand. These take the form of probabilities. The probabilities may be subjective estimates from managers or from experts in a particular field, or they may reflect historical frequencies. If they be reasonably correct, they provide a close noble with additional information that can dramatically improve the decision-making process. Since the problem is limited to Wards expected demands for CDs, we can say that our recognizable states of nature are the following ? Saturday get = 1000 and Sunday expect = 1000 ?Saturday Demand = 1000 and Sunday Demand = 3000 ?Saturday Demand = 3000 and Sunday Demand = 1000 ?Saturday Demand = 3000 and Sunday Demand = 3000 The minimum total demand for both Saturday and Sunday would be 2000 CDs, whereas the maximum total demand for both Saturday and Sunday would be 6000 CDs.The median(a) total demand however is consistent at 4000 CDs. We can consolidate them to 3 states of nature ? Saturday Demand + Sunday Demand = 2000 ?Saturday Demand + Sunday Demand = 4000 ?Saturday Demand + Sunday Demand = 6000 Lets call these states of nature d2, d4 and d6. We use the TreePlan software to create the decision tree for Wards problem. We stipulate the initial costs of productions as $24,000, $33,000 and $42,000.Additionally, we make sure to deduct the royalties from the sales revenue, since they are considered as future expenses (after the sales occur). Please see below for the decision tree. 2. Maximization of Expected Monetary Value as a criterion The average or expected payoff of each alternative is a heavy average the state of nature probabilities are used to weight the respective payoffs. ? Therefore the expected monetary value for each alternative is as follows EMVp2 = $ 6,000EMVp4 = $ 12,000 EMVp6 = $ 10,500 check to the maximizati on of Expected Monetary Value criterion, we can say that the director of the festival should press 4000 CDs on Friday night, since the Expected Monetary Value of that decision is best at $12,000. 3. Paying for perfect information If Ward could obtain information about the demand for CDs prior to committing to the CD production, there will be an f number bound on the sum of money it would be reasonable to spend.The most Ward should pay for perfect information about the two-day demand for CDs can be calculated using the Expected Value of Perfect Information EVPI = EPC EMV, where EPC is the expected payoff under certainty, and EMV is expected monetary value with alternative p4. We calculate EPC as EPC = 0. 5 * 6000 + 0. 25 * 27000 + 0. 25 * 48000 = $ 21,750 EMV = $ 12,000 Total value of perfect information EVPI = $ 9750 It would be reasonable to pay $9,750 dollars to obtain perfect information. It is thus not worthy to spend more than that amount of money to obtain perfect informat ion.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Pros and Cons of Inclusive Education Essay

In comprehensive grooming programs all students in a civilise argon subjected to study together and belong part of the school community regardless they ar handicapped or figure (Schwartz, Odom, & Sandall, 2010). They all attend the same school and bring on the feeling of be in the school. Students, teachers and co-ordinate staff have a role to instruct all students regardless to their disability in general culture. From teachingal suckpoint, inclusion involves perpetrates where students with special(a)(a) needs in terms of preparation spend over much of their time with normal student in the training process.It is believed that comprehensive tuition poses more merits than its negatives effectuate to rearingal systems since it provides a better opportunity for all students to participate in all activities in their everyday learning process. inclusive education has been a political platform for the change students to create a unique and better relationship with new(prenominal) normal students in school communities. Additionally, inclusive education serves as a constitutional right to all disabled students since they are part of the society and indeed they should not be ignored (Schwartz, Odom, & Sandall, 2010).While there are a make out of controversies in the subject of inclusive education, a clear understanding is required about inclusive education so as to reap maximally from the benefits it presents. Advantages of Inclusive Education The current research seems to stomach inclusive education and co-teaching as convey of improving both special and general education in the schools (Block, n. d). Mainstreaming which is natural to inclusive education has been observed to improve students social skills by fostering interaction between the disabled students with other(a) normal students in the same or neighboring schools (Block, n.d). This has developed communication and interaction skills among the normal and disabled students thus ma king them to be competent in the society. In particular, the increased interaction among students in inclusive education develops them to relate well with other members of the society. Social dimension is measured in terms of behavior and character of an individual in joining with the capacity to exercise them. Communication forms the basis of character and behavior of individuals. Therefore, inclusive education builds individuals who perfectly fit into the society (Block, n. d).Higher self-esteem among disabled students has in like manner been achieved in the process of mainstreaming typical in inclusive educational system (PBSparents, 2010). Students gain more confidence and self efficiency in inclusive education thence they command a higher self-esteem. Not only do students in inclusive education gain higher states of confidence, they in like manner gain organized ways to approach common aspects in life. Research conducted in California on disabled students showed that 96 pe rcent of disabled students felt confident when meld with other students during learning process (PBSparents, 2010).However, 3 percent of these students felt excluded while a lesser percentage of 1 percent felt low pull down when mixed with other normal students (PBSparents, 2010). This research shows that inclusive education builds high esteem among the disabled students and hence should be encouraged (PBSparents, 2010). Enhanced academic achievements among the disabled students form another great advantage of inclusive education. Through the integration of normal students and the disabled, there is a potential realization of academic achievements among the disabled students who are a minor group in the society (PBSparents, 2010).The relationship between the teachers and students is much coherent in inclusive education and thus creates smooth means for academic achievements among this minor group. Most teachers take keen interest to the disabled students in order to put them in th e same level with the rest of other in the class. Students gain both academic experience and applied abilities that are critical in their lives. As a result of inclusive education, there have been increasing numbers of disabled graduates in the US and elsewhere in the world (PBSparents, 2010).In inclusive education, there is an enhanced parents participation in the prep of education to the students (PBSparents, 2010). This enhanced participation ensures that students are provided with better education hence better academic achievements on the part of students. This is achieved through moral and material support that parents invest in the students which lead to improvement in education quality in inclusive education. The learning objectives are well met in inclusive education as parents commit their efforts in the betterment of education (PBSparents, 2010).As a result, there is an improved relationship in inclusive education compared to exclusive education system where parents rely entirely on teachers and the school management on education responsibilities for their children (PBSparents, 2010). Normal students in inclusive education learn to appreciate other disabled students hence fostering better relationships not only in the school community but also at their homes and the society at macroscopic (Ratta, 2009). Inclusive education brings out the meaning of the theoretical knowledge taught in schools into practice.The majority of the learners in other education systems that do not mix normal students with disabled students leave schools with limited knowledge thus making it hard for them to cope up with life (Inclusive Schools Network, 2010). It is believed that when the normal students learn in the same surroundings with the disabled students, much understanding and tolerance is cultivated . the normal students learn to accept others in their capacity regardless to their health (Ratta, 2009).Positive aspects achieved from inclusive education contribute m uch to contact theory which asserts that meaningful, frequent and pleasant communication between and among people results to a better and changed attitude towards differences. As result much is felt in the society of different individuals. On the same note, inclusive education prepares the disabled students to plan on their future (PBSparents, 2010). The lessons they achieve in inclusive educational programs while in schools are crucial in preparing them for future career and general tactics of survival.In inclusive institutions of learning, teachers impart knowledge to learners. This knowledge usually consists of theory as well as practical skills. This ways, students become more flexible in life and have some ways to survive. conduct is much of what one knows and gets experienced to do (PBSparents, 2010). Therefore, there is always an increasing need for inclusive education that combines both the disabled and non-disabled students. More so, inclusive education helps disabled stud ent to develop a sense of pride in their learning due to accomplishing their duties in the process of learning.For instance, under normal class environs with various students (normal and disabled), effrontery an assignment to do will increase the pride of disabled learners if accomplished in time and accurately (PBSparents, 2010). This is clear indication that learning inclusively improves the ability of the students in general. Demerits of Inclusive Education Not only does inclusive education provide the best to both normal and disabled students but also constitutes of a number of disadvantages (Schwartz, Billingsley & McBride, 2010).One of the most debated disadvantages of inclusive education is financial hardships. In order for the school to provide for special education system and services, much financial resources are needed to properly finance the system. The cost per student under special education is much higher compared to normal student thus giving a challenge to most sc hools. The more special students a school has, the more expenditure needed to run the school (Schwartz, Billingsley & McBride, 2010). This has attaind more problems in inclusive education system.Parents and guardians have often expressed fears that in inclusive education system, teachers do not have the required skills to teach and halt the disabled learners (Schwartz, Billingsley & McBride, 2010). However, supportive and training institutions usually train the teachers on both normal and special needs of students so as to address problems in case they arise. alone if the teacher ignores the students of this nature it whitethorn result to regression of the learner thus the overall productivity is decreased in terms of academics.More so, the learners them selves whitethorn cause harm to the lad students thus making classroom environment uncomfortable for learning process (Schwartz, Billingsley & McBride, 2010). One respectable and potential disadvantages of inclusive education is that of the inwardness of time and the kind of attention drawn by the teachers to students with special needs (Kidstogether. org, 2010). Significant observations have shown that there is an increased attention to students with special needs which may take away the attention of the teachers from the rest of the class.This trend can eventually lead to a decreased concentration on the part of normal students hence less achievement academically (Kidstogether. org, 2010). In another observation, due to frequent disturbances in inclusive education, there may be a fall in academic performance (Schwartz, Billingsley & McBride, 2010). In most cases, its believed that learners with disabilities can cause unnecessary locomotion in learning environment making it tireless exercise. Teachers may lack positive and dynamic response to the students due to lack of special skills to handle such learners in classroom environment.This is much contributed by personal view towards the disabled people. Lack of official liaison required by the teacher can also interrupt the usual understanding of the learner in this military position (Schwartz, Billingsley & McBride, 2010). Improper articulation between the co-teachers also contributes to students in taking, no matter their abnormality. Another major issue is social discrimination among the teachers and students. This will cause serious problems not only in the school environment but also in the community level.Regular education students may so much charge to do anything to disabled individuals this resulting to inferiority complex among the students. This can be avoided by having a joint socialization in the school which may extend unless to the outside communities (Schwartz, Billingsley & McBride, 2010). Studies have shown that students with special needs may require more time to grasp concepts (Kidstogether. org, 2010). Time spent in reviewing concepts may not be enough for students with special needs who learn at a slower pace.Normal students who need to move at a fast pace may end up getting bored and if this weakness is not checked, it will dangerously lead to poor academic performance among normal students in inclusive education. This is because inclusive education system overlooks the needs and requirements of the both normal and disabled students (Schwartz, Billingsley & McBride, 2010). The rise in implementations and modifications usually articulated in regular education systems that practice inclusion has caused disconnection between teaching and the learning process (National Center for Education Statistics, 2010).This has mainly affected special need students in these systems which practice inclusion. When rules are further implemented, it becomes hard for disabled students to adhere to and incase no adjustments are made, this can ultimately affect the standards of learning among the special need students. The results may be dwarfism in education either in terms of skills or knowledge or bot h (National Center for Education Statistics, 2010).Most researchers have given out different views concerning the idea on inclusive education system where other have observed that the system is so much demanding to school garbage disposal and the community at large (National Center for Education Statistics, 2010). Other researchers have observed an increase in school closure in the systems that embrace inclusion. This presents as one of the challenges of inclusive education system which has lately been perceived to be difficult to manage and run making many schools to shut down and students school dropouts (Delma, Selina & Dorothy, 2009).A significant amount of resources is dedicated to field work and mainstreaming where normal students benefit more compared to rest of the disabled students. This presents a serious inequality in per student spending where resources are spent for functions that do not benefit the students with special needs (Kitmitto & Bandeira, 2008). However, this point has been argued by a number of observers who note that special needs students also require facilities and equipments not required by normal students. This observation seems to cancel out the point that more funds are spent on normal students.This controversy has resulted to the formation of ripples in a legal system of education (Kitmitto & Bandeira, 2008). More serious problem is when some groups believes that some students are not worth to be put in regular classroom to study thus resulting to streaming in school communities. Conclusion In conclusion, inclusive education system is slowly becoming forgotten in most schools despite its importance among both normal and disabled students. It has many several benefits as opposed to other educational system which do not combine disabled students with the normal ones.It should be identified that the ability of the disabled students to socialize with their fellow students to a large extent build their confidence as the student feel to be part of the school community. Attempts to prevent the students to access inclusive education prevent the students from a number of benefits that would otherwise mold them to become successful leaders. Therefore, parents, teacher and all school stakeholders need to adjust in order to accommodate both disabled and normal students in the same learning environment bearing in mind that they are all part of the community.References Block, M. E (n. d). rule for and benefits of inclusion. Retrieved July 25, 2010 from, http//www. palaestra. com/Inclusion2. html Delma, B. , Selina, M & Dorothy, W (2009). School leavers survey report 2007. Retrieved July 25, 2010 from, http//www. esri. ie/publications/search_for_a_publication/search_results/view/inde x. xml? id=2720 Inclusive Schools Network (2010). Characteristics of inclusive schools. Retrieved July 24, 2010 from http//www. inclusiveschools. org/characteristics_inclusive_schools Kidstogether. Org (2010). Benefits of inclusive educati on.Retrieved July 24, 2010 from http//www. kidstogether. org/inclusion/benefitsofinclusion. htm Kitmitto, S & Bandeira, S (2008). Measuring the status and change of NAEP State f inclusion rates for students with disabilities. Retrieved July 25, 2010 from, http//nces. ed. gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/studies/2009453_1. pdf National Center for Education Statistics (2010). Inclusion of special-needs students. Retrieved July 25, 2010 from, http//nces. ed. gov/nationsreportcard/about/inclusion. asp PBSparents (2010). Inclusive communities the benefits of inclusive education. Retrieved July 24, 2010 from http//www. pbs. org/parents/inclusivecommunities/inclusive_education2. html Ratta, T. M (2009).Benefits of inclusive education. Retrieved July 24, 2010 from http//www. merinews. com/article/benefits-of-inclusive-education/150756. shtml Schwartz, I. S. , Billingsley, F. F & McBride, B. M (2010). Including children with autism in inclusive preschools strategies that work. Retrieved July 25, 20 10 from, http//www. newhorizons. org/spneeds/inclusion/ development/schwartz2. htm Schwartz, I. S. , Odom, S. L. , & Sandall, S. R (2010). Including young children with special needs. Retrieved July 25, 2010 from, http//www. newhorizons. org/spneeds/inclusion/information/schwartz3. htm

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Narrative Reporting

Narrative incubateing and introduction of OFR is an important development in corporate responsibility. The introduction of needed OFR made several companies race to meet with the requirements of the law. Subsequently, the OFR was made non mandatory again but aw arness has been created. Every investor knows that he should look at the OFR of a ac conjunction he seeks to invest in. If the OFR is missing it raises doubts about the credibility and the intentions of the company .In future even though the mandatory clause has been withdrawn, companies are likely to produce much comprehensive and informative OFR than ever before.Narrative coverage concentrates on presenting events and actions in certain order so that complications and problems are understood. Narrative reporting concentrates on the descriptions, events and facts that pertain to events, identifying the power who are involved and the manner in which the sequence of events took place. The OFR (Operating and pecuniary re view) is a report included in a companys annual report and accounts that is published to meet the requirement of corporate governance that enumerates the operating activities and financial affairs of the company.In the UK the Operating and Financial Review was introduced with the enjoyment of increasing corporate responsibility. The purpose of this requirement was that social and environmental issues would be described in the OTR and this would provide a wider level of information to the shareholder. In addition, it was expected that the OTR would in a personal manner compel companies to carry out external audit of these issues. Specifically it was intended that the OFR would provide better information to the investors on the likely performance of the companies during the financial year.The limit of the OFR should have an overview of the capital structure of the company and the financial characteristics of the company. In addition, the OFR was need to provide the main risks and uncertainties that faced the company. Further, the OFR was required to have descriptions of the brand strength, market strengths, company reputation and R&D, that is the resources that the company enjoyed in the market. Most importantly, the OFR required the companies to disclose the objectives and strategies of the company (Financial write uping Council 2007).The OFR also required the companies to disclose its relationships with suppliers, customer and employees. In former(a) words the company was required to disclose its relationship with the stakeholders of the company. The company was also required to comment on the reputation of the company, especially in relation to the social club and the environment. Moreover, the company was required to comment on the impact the reputation would have on the future performance of the company (Yeldar. R. 2007).In the UK the OFR disclosures have been left to an extent to the directors of the company. Their views on the different show ups a re critical in making the disclosure useful to the company. Moreover, the government has focused on the OFR to fill the lacunae in reporting that traditional financial statements left in the annual reports (Morris. G, McKay. S & Oates. A, 2006). If the menu is so inclined, then the OFR can simply be relegated to a public relations activity of the company.The point is that if companies choose non to include corporate responsibility issues in their OFR then at that place may be a need for a mandatory inclusion of corporate responsibility indicators in the OFR. Even though OFR is driving the companies to disclose corporate responsibility issues, the final decision to disclose remains with the companies (Gee. P, 2006). The OFRs are required to honestly disclose the performance, development and the position of the company to help the investor hold in better decisions. In addition, the OFRs are required to provide the salient factors and the important switch off that affect the pres ent financial performance and the future status of the company. It is believed that not too many boards of directors leave behind be eager to tie an honest disclosure of these trends.To assess the current state of narrative reporting in the UK let us take a look at the review of narrative reporting published by the ASB on January 15, 2007. The report gives some areas of improvement that is the key performance indicators are missing in narrative reporting, the companies are not cautious in their description of the principal risks and uncertainties and do not mention their approaches in mitigating these risks and uncertainties. What is most important is that forward looking information is not disclosed in the narrative reports.The review lauds the companies for reporting an increasing number of environmental, employee and social issues, the companies are giving good description of current developments and present performance and that the companies are providing more than or less g ood descriptions of their current line of reasoning, markets, strategic plans and objectives (Ploix. H, & Charkham. J 2005). The auditors are currently required to comment on whether the OFR is consistent with their knowledge of the Annual Report and accounts. However, it is often seen that currently the companies in their OFR often give spin over substance.The companies over emphasize their favorable performance and avoid mentioning their areas of weaknesses. It is expected that now the companies ordain be required to product a broader annual report and specify their non financial performance and plans for future. For example, Shell is the biggest emitter of greenhouse gases in the UK and has a share of 23% of all emissions from FTSE 100 companies but this is not mentioned in the OFR of the company. There are no specific plans either to reduce emissions. Similarly, BP and Scottish Power are creditworthy for 17% of the emissions but this is not all the way mentioned in their annu al reports.The lacuna in the law is that the auditor is required to compare the OFR statements with the financial reports and accounts and check if the statements in the OFR are in agreement with financial reports and accounts. This does not require the auditor to mention the omissions that have been made from the OFR nor does the audit of the narrative statement require the board of directors to make statements that disclose the weaknesses of the company. It is clear that in case of Shell, BP and Scottish Power if their emission levels of greenhouse gases are mentioned and the weaknesses in their future plans of reducing these emissions are clearly delineated in their annual reports, then several estimable investors may decide to stay forward from these companies (Cowan. N, 2006, p 137).The recent history of the OFR is that the OFR was first introduced in 1993 by the ASB. At that time it was not mandatory. The Companies Act 1985(Operating and Financial Review and Directors Report etc.) Regulations 2005 required quoted companies to prepare a compulsory OFR and other companies to include in their Directors Reports a business review. Small companies were exempt from the requirements of this regulation.The Accounting Standards Board issued an accompanying coverage Standard that those companies that complied with the reporting Standard 1 would be presumed to have met the OFR Regulations. In November, 2005 the Chancellor announced that the government wanted to do away with the need for quoted companies to prepare an OFR. In January 2006 the Repeal Regulation of 2005 came into force that did away with the need for quoted companies to make an OFR.The Reporting Standard 1 was converted into a Reporting Statement. This remains just as a guiding statement for companies that contumacious to produce an OFR (Vilers. C, 2006). In the next month that is February 2006 the government requested suggestions and comments on improving the narrative reporting requirements. In May 2006 the government publicized amendments to the Business Review legislation. Finally, in November 2006, The Companies Act was given the final assent. and the Business Review requirements are now given legal sanction.Gordon Br witnesss decision to abandon the mandatory constitution of the OFR has been supported by two arguments. First, the government claims it wants to reduce bureaucracy. Second, government feels that the new requirements for business review meet the EU requirements for narrative reporting. This is the official line of the government.. However, there are other reasons that are being given as the reason for the abolition of the compulsory clause. It is claimed that the abolition of the mandatory requirement is offered as an incentive to business to remain in the UK and to attract new businesses to the UK. It is a part of the race to make UK attractive to business investors.Several environmental organizations like Friends of Earth and NGOs have decided to file a law suit against the government to force it to see reason. They see the withdrawal of the mandatory clause as signal to the business arena to continue with their environmentally baneful expansion plans. These organizations had been earlier clamoring for mandatory social and environmental reporting for businesses. From this perspective it seems that Gordon Browns decision is not a good one.There are other reasons given to support Gordon Browns decision. The claim is that more than 80% of the listed companies give voluntarily comply with the requirements of Reporting Statement and generate OFR statements. Those that do not will face investor reaction and comply with the Reporting Statement requirements. Those that persist in not producing an OFR voluntarily will be perceived as not transparent by the investing public. In addition, the proponents of the abolition of mandatory OFR aver that the size and the complexity of the annual reports frighten away to most investors. In 2005 the average length of the annual reports was 71 pages. Adding to this only confuses the shareholders.Finally, the materiality array out clause has made the compulsory OFR ineffective. This has also allowed companies to get out of the need to report their weaknesses. However, we should not write off the OFR as dead. Every business knows that it should have an OFR to inform its shareholder. The need for qualitative, non-financial information has been created in the investors. If a company does not produce an OFR the investor may suspect it several faults. The end result will be that the shareholders will find it prudent to stay away from companies that do not produce a comprehensive OFR. There will be reputed persons who will stay away from the boards of companies that do not produce an OFR that meets the ideal prescribed by the ASB.The OFR lives in the business review. The government is not compelling the companies to produce an OFR but the shareholders, investors and other stakeholde rs will compel the companies to produce and OFR. Environmental organizations and NGOs will take up the matter with companies that do not report on social and environmental issues. Companies that refuse to make OFRs may be shunned by ethical investors, high profile employees and environmentally conscious business partners. The awareness has been created, guidelines have been drafted and the importance of corporate responsibility has been emblazoned. The OFR has taken on a life of its own and even without compulsion it will feature in the annual reports of most UK companies.As the consciousness of investors increases, as the top employees become choosier and as corporations become more environmentally sensitive, OFR will continue to thrive. There is no need to revive the mandatory clause. Enough consciousness has been created to make the corporate sector aware and alive to its reporting responsibilities, the Business Review is adequate for this purpose. Those companies that do not beh ave in a responsible manner will suffer because they will not be able to sustain the interests of stakeholders that matter.To sum, there are a number of reasons given in support of the abolition of the mandatory clause and a number of reasons are being given for the reintroduction of mandatory requirements for OFR However, the importance of the OFA has been driven home to the companies, the investors and other stakeholders. Financial reporting alone does not give enough information to make a decision and he knows that an OFA is important. The OFA continues to live in the UK corporate world even after the mandatory clause has been abolished.ReferencesCowan. N, 2006 Risk Analysis and Evaluation, Lessons Professional Publishing..Financial Reporting Council 2007 ASB Publishes Review of Narrative Reporting. Retrieved on January 30, 2007 from http// P, 2006 UK GAAP for Business and Practice, ElsevierMorris. G, McKay. S & Oates. A, 2006 Finance Directors Handbook, Elsevi er.Ploix. H, & Charkham. J 2005 Keeping Better Company embodied Governance Ten Years on, Oxford University Press.Vilers. C, 2006, Corporate Reporting and Company Law, Cambridge University Press. 205 -209Yeldar. R. 2007 Accounting Standards Board Publishes Review of Narrative Reporting, Retrieved on January 30, 2007 from http//

Friday, May 24, 2019

Comparison Paper 1: Effective Biblical Counseling Essay

The debate over proper models to use in counseling is one that Dr. Larry Crabb focuses on in his book, potent Biblical Counseling. He explores the relationship that people have with each other as well as with God. Crabb provides the readers with a variety of approaches that can be utilise with intergrating the word and counseling.Primary GoalAuthor Lawrence J. Crabb opens by highlighting his prior book, Basic Principles of Biblical Counseling. In his introduction he points out how the problems in the heart of Christians begin to surface as they begin to accept a greater fellowship with God and man. With these issues also comes the need for spending more time in the body of Christ. This may often include counseling. The primary goal that Crabb has is with creating a biblical model for counseling that can be integrated into the church.Development of Problems and individual-to-person NeedsWith people licing out their lives, there comes a time when crisis may occur. Sometime there h ave been hidden issues within a persons life foryears, however these issues may not manifest until that person seeks a deeper relationship with God and man. As a person seeks out truth and faithfulness, that person is able to find favour in the sight of God and man. (Proverbs 33-5) As the issues are hidden in the heart of man, they may not be able to properly articulate these issues but more importantly they may not have a clear understanding of the proper outlets to use to pile with these issues.Crabb expresses his ideas by means of stating that Christiaans have a call on their life to be encouragers to others. If as Christians we are not supporting or ministering to others as they go through storms, then we are failing them. A great deal of issues are surrounded by the maturity levels of Christians. As mentioned by Paul, the immature Christian tends to altercate more while also reacting to their circumstances with negativity. On the other hand, the mature Christian seeks out Ch rist. As they seek out Christ, they are seeking to revere God and if they fall into trials of sin, they are able to fear the Lord and depart from evil. They are able to get to a place of reconciliation in a quicker way.Biblical IntegrationOne thing that Crabb does is make reference to the Lord and his word. He references Paul as well as he quotes 2 Corinthians in his early chapters. As the book moves forward he continues to build the bridge of the model with the life of the Christian in both theology and pscychology. saying for ChangeIn making an attempt to integrate the bible with counseling, Crabb proves the read with 4 approaches. These include conk out but equal, tossed salad, nothing buttery and spoiling the Egyptians. With the separate but equal approach, theology and psychology is equal but can never be combined.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Advertisement In Media Right or Wrong ?

We all are animated in the era of commercialism, modernisation and sophistication. Where we dont care of even ourselves in ethical means or as a human being. In our daily life we deduct across with a divide of events and incidents which put an important impact in our daily life. Here advertisement of different things plays a key role in our life. When lecture about advertisement in media, it has both Positive impact as well as stigmatic effects on our lives, which means that up to some extent Advertisement in media is acceptable for our minds otherwise it is not less than a curse. Lets have a glance in our life in previous times.Yes we were passing through a in truth simple simply pure and meaningful life which was free from advertisements and commercialism. When talking about our society, peck were living a balanced life. Our ancestors had given time to each other to establish a mature society. While we talk about the negative impacts of advertisement in news papers, TV or mag azines we generally face these type of effects in our Quality of life, like demoralization of our Social as well as ethical values. We have often heard that it is an international rule that every advertisement in media, TV, or magazine must have to pass the write in code of Conduct before publishing.In code of conduct there includes various prohibitions, for example use of kids as a a target audience in advertisement is strictly restricted but the situation is reverse in every cultural society apart from Pakistan. Similarly abuse material should not be advertised e. g. Cigarettes advertisement etc We have talked about the demoralization of Social values in our society by advertisement like for example when we spark off through the metropolitan streets we see a lot of Billboards having the display of different products of different types.In these billboards most of companies, advertising their products have displayed ladies to attract the people toward them. right think as a Musl im, whether it is good or bad? Because Islam has given very respectful status to women. hardly instead of advocating that status is it right to wait on the picture of a lady on billboards? Obviously not . So continue to talk about the negative impacts of advertisement in our society. Now a days advertisement in either media or in Newspaper, and magazines have be fall more glamour oriented. These glamour oriented advertisements.It is there fore say that Advertisement in an exaggerated mien has created a destructive effect in our attitudes, habits and mindsets. For example in our society like Pakistan here more than 7o% people run after his bread and butter of life. Glamour in advertisement or exaggeration in advertisement creates greediness among people. Because one thing is very simple and clear that EVERY ONE FIGHTS FOR THE THING, HE DOES NOT HAVE Said by Hitler. Most of the time the products that are advertised on residence boards or TV, media and magazines are costly. Thats why people want to get those things by hook or by crook.As we see that glamour in advertisement of different products attracts people of society. In other words it creates feelings of Self deprivation among people which consequently boost up the crime rate in our society so we can say that glamour in advertising create a negative role in our lower middle distinguish and in lower Class people. Similarly we live in Pakistan where like every cultural society in the world , a layman is inefficient to get the basic necessities of life, so when we see the different companies advertising their products in a quite aggressive fashion, these companies spend lot of money on it.But the simple thing is that if these companies spend money on advertising in a moderate way, then they people can save a lot of money and can improve the quality of life of poor people . We should not ignore the positive effects of advertising as well. While talking about the positive impacts of advertising. We can sa y advertising is a gateway of information of new things, products, services and cognizance. In the recent technological era there is introduction of various new things including electronics, household appliances, pharmaceutical products and etc.So awareness regarding these things are very much needed at public level. In this regard Advertisement has played a vital role to upgrade the life of human beings in our society. Advertisement in TV. Newspaper and in Magazines etc has change the taste of slice of life of people in a positive way as well. When we talk about the health segment of society we shall come to know that by spreading awareness about different topics or diseases, our people have improved their way of living as well as their health.In this regard we if focus diabetes, we will conclude that a decade ago diabetes in our society considered to be a deadly disease but know of course advertisement in media an at public level has totally change the old concept of diabetes. S imilar is the case with other awareness programs of health as well. Advertisement is a very ready and sophisticated source to spread the information. I think that if advertisement is in moderate way and if it is not like that of today, the automatically we can balance our society and regain the loosed rapport among ourselves and each other.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Bege-101 Assignment Session 2012 Solve

DRAFT Meeting Ag give upa MEETING TITLE cypher Sponsors Council DATE Friday, January 22, 2010 TIME 10 a. m. 1230 p. m. LOCATION chapiter reconcile De set outment of Transportation, SW office 11018 NE 51st Circle, Vancouver, exiting capital 98662 TIME 1000 a. m. AGENDA TOPIC Welcome Approve Dec. 4, 2009 Meeting Summary 1005 a. m. Conceptual Finance Plan Overview and Discussion 1025 a. m. belling Study Committee Findings 1055 a. m. Break 1110 a. m. Performance Measures advisory Group explanation 1140 a. m. Performance Measures Application Example 1155 p. m. Hayden Island Update 1230 p. . Adjourn TRANSIT DIRECTIONS from PORTLAND From raftiness district Portland, take C-TRAN Express Bus 164 to the Fishers Landing journey Center. Transfer to Bus 80 (Van Mall/Fishers) eastbound to 49th and 112th Avenue. WSDOT SW Region Headquarters is 2 blocks north of this bus stop. TRANSIT DIRECTIONS from VANCOUVER From Downtown Vancouver take C-TRAN Bus 4 (Fourth Plain) eastbound to the Vanc ouver Mall Transit Center. new(prenominal) b characters to Vancouver Mall ar 32, 72, 44 and 78. From the Mall Transit Center, transfer to Bus 80 (Van Mall/Fishers) eastbound to 49th and 112th Avenue.WSDOT SW Regional Headquarters is 2 blocks north of this bus stop. For detailed trip protrudening, please contact the twain transit agencies C-TRAN, www. c-tran. com, 360-695-0123, or TriMet, www. trimet. org, 503-238-RIDE Meeting facilities atomic number 18 wheelchair accessible and children argon welcome. Individuals requiring reasonable accommodations may request scripted material in substitute formats or sign language interpreters by calling the get word team at the aim office (360-737-2726 and 503-256-2726) unity hebdomad before the satiateing or calling Washington States TTY teleph 1 number, 1-800-833-6388.Meeting Summary MEETING DATE LOCATION capital of South Carolina River Crossing (CRC) Project Sponsors Council December 4, 2009, 1000 am 1200 pm Port of Portland, 121 NW Everett Street, Portland, OR ATTENDEES Adams, Sam Bragdon, David Garrett, Matthew Hansen, Fred Hewitt, Henry (Co-chair) Leavitt, Tim Pollard, Royce Stuart, Steve city manager, City of Portland Council President, electron tube Director, Oregon De break awayment of Transportation General manager, TriMet late(prenominal) chair, Oregon Transportation Commission Chair of the Board of Directors, C-TRAN Mayor, City of Vancouver Chair, SW Washington Regional Transportation CouncilS TAFF Brandman, Ric weighed down Wagner, Don ODOT CRC work out director Regional Administrator, Washington State Dept. of Transportation Note Meeting materials and handouts referred to in this summary prat be accessed online at http//www. columbiariver pass oer. org/ProjectPartners/PSCMeetingMaterials. aspx Welcome and popular mention Co-chair Henry Hewitt thanked attendees for coming and inform that PSC members co-chair Hal Dengerink and Secretary Paula Hammond could non be at todays dateing. Due to the large number of sign-ups for exoteric comment, testimony provide be limited to maven minute per person.The Council will accept written comments, as well. Representative Tina Kotek, Oregon evoke legislator for Ho routine District 44 in north and northeast Portland I support the visualise and have submitted written testimony from my comments at the state legislative discloseings held Nov. 19 in Salem. If the put up has accessional questions to resolve, please do it promptly and dont delay the fancy at the risk of missing national backing. I want to thank the residents from Hayden Island and ask CRC cater to disputationen to them and admirer solve more or slight of the livability challenges on the island posed by the proposed name intricacys.Ed Garren, citizen co-chair of the Hayden Island Plan I was al focusings in favor of the couplet as it was proposed. It was a state of the art span, analogous a beautiful Lexis Hybrid. These specters turn it into a 20year old Oldsmobile that expects a ring job. Its going to be dirty, with pumps running 24/7 for a hundred years, and will destroy the livability of the Hayden Island community. Youre not following appropriate processes. Its different from what we were sold by the CRC for two years. slew are upset most the command of input and this bait and switch.The impacts to Hayden Island are spread throughout the draft environmental impact statement, ambiguous, and difficult to find. Hayden Island is not well-served by this proposal. Shannon Palermo, StopTheCRC. org My main concern is this continues to ignore environmental and social justice issues. The Coalition for a Livable Future and Bicycle Transportation Alliance earnest words have been fill outly ignored. There have been no recommendations for environmental justice. We foot do this better in Portland. We command to ground policy that accounts for peak oil and climate change.I would like a supplemental EIS that accounts for enviro nmental and social justice issues and includes asthma place in north and northeast Portland where I live. 1 360/737-2726 503/256-2726 WWW. COLUMBIARIVER crown of thorns. ORG 1/25/2010 700 capital of the United States STREET, SUITE 300, VANCOUVER, WA 98660 DECEMBER 4, 2009 MEETING SUMMARY COLUMBIA RIVER intersection point COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING (CRC) PROJECT SPONSORS COUNCIL Donna Murphy, Hayden Island resident I just moved to the island in June. We deal with a lot of noise from trains, forgees, and autos, just now we love living along the river. Mayor Adams, please imagine living at that place.Were higher-ranking citizens. Im going to do all I can to get our voices heard. We need a Safeway, a pharmacy, and our gas station. Roger Staver, chair of Hayden Island Neighborhood Network (HINooN) My aggroup sent the throw up a letter regarding impacts of the elegance package on Hayden Island. As you consider suggestions in our letter, please remember that Hayden Island is the mos t impacted reach in the examine. Its an island isolated by the channel and the river. The recently approved Hayden Island Plan had as a goal the ability of residents to stay on the island to meet their basic necessitate.The final cause amplifications force us off the island. We cannot go to a neighborhood somewhere else we have to stay on the island. Peg Johnson, Hayden Island resident I have been very involved in CRC planning since 2005. We continue to support this view for the most part, hardly the refinement package makes things worse than they were in the starting signal place. Im asking you to keep Hayden Island and livability in mind, which means sustainability. If you go ahead with refinements, please dedicate yourselves to making the most that you can of the situation on Hayden Island.Our letter reflects our special(prenominal) points. Rex Burkholder, Metro Councilor for district 5, cause member of the CRC Task Force I urge the ensure to keep working on this. We n eed to continue problem solving and my letter contains further comments. I give you my support for your work. Kathryn Williams, business and quetch manager for the Port of Portland We have been supportive of the bi-state bowel movement to improve I-5 and the related interchanges. Were especially interested in how the refinements affect the oceanic grind interchange. We support the refinements in the package and urge you to move transport.Ginger Metcalf, individuation Clark County, Greater Vancouver Chamber of Commerce, and capital of South Carolina River Crossing Coalition The private sector continues to invest in infrastructure that allows job creation, but a corresponding man investment in transportation has been slower in coming. If we want to compete in the global providence, we must invest in our freight infrastructure. To build a culture of sustainable success, we need to make the economic connection between jobs and how the states spend money. The business community is behind you.John Mohlis, capital of South Carolina Pacific Building Trades Council The dispatch has been scaled down appropriately. We want to move this invent forward, so if thither are refinements that need to be made, please do that. The construction industry is in a depression, not a recession. Every month that this project is delayed, lots mess will lose their homes, their health insurance, their homes, and will cash in their 401k accounts to transfer their kids to college. Please work together and move this forward. Walter Valenta, Portland resident I have been working on this project for a long time.This is an important milestone, but its one of m whatever. This is the belt-tightening part. Whats important is that as we tighten it, we dont sell out the core values of our community. We must make the land use and transportation system on Hayden Island work together. We cant quit caring about trope. We cant assume that by making it cheaper were going to make it ugly. T his bridge can represent the values of Portland. Marion Haynes, Oregon Business Association Businesses near the state depend on this bridge. The need for it has been clear articulated for a decade.We appreciate the staff responsiveness to scaling back the project size. There are more(prenominal) details to work out, but businesses or so the state are counting on you to move this forward. Ed Lynch, former member of the CRC Task Force Our forbears paid tolls on the ferry and bridges in the past. buzzers for bridge users ought to be paramount in addition to any other funds. Secondly, if were going to build the bridge, lets build it aright. Think of the Sydney, Australia bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge and Transbay Bridge, all built in the 1930s. Theyre still in use today because they were done right.Lets build to the wide-cut width and do it right the first time. Anonymous Im against any further spending on the CRC bridge. Why wasnt the $3. 6 one thousand thousand cost part o f the original proposal if it will accomplish the same thing as the earlier proposal? You readm unwilling to tell the public what its truly going to cost. If this is a arenaal transportation necessity, a regional gas tax is in 2 360/737-2726 503/256-2726 WWW. COLUMBIARIVERCROSSING. ORG 700 capital of the United States STREET, SUITE 300, VANCOUVER, WA 98660 DECEMBER 4, 2009 MEETING SUMMARY COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING (CRC) PROJECT SPONSORS COUNCIL rder. If youre going to toll the new bridge to reduce craft, then(prenominal) tolling the veritable bridge for that reason should work too. Why not toll the current bridge? Least-cost options should be used first, not last. On I-5 there are approximately 300 cars for every truck. This is not a jobs program. We have lots of community involve that will create long-term sustainable jobs. We shouldnt accept more money from Asia. Burdening me with debt does not stimulate jobs. Elson Strahan, president of Fort Vancouve r National Trust I besides provided written testimony.I was pleased to support our final recommendation as a member of the CRC Task Force despite knowing of the impacts to our site and that it would require mitigation. Because of these impacts, mitigation is an absolute federal requirement as part of the National Highway Act and National Historic Preservation Act. We and the City of Vancouver have approved the design concept for the Community Connector. We look forward to it cosmosness integrated into the project. Paul Jeffery, Portland resident I moved to Portland 10 years ago for its reputation as a place that does things differently.The proposed Mt. Hood expressway was out of use(p) by citizens and that made me feel great about moving here. The CRC wants to turn Portland into another failed city. I dont want that to decease. This is not a project for the 21st century its rooted in a mid-20th century approach to problems. David Rowe, resident of Battle Ground, Wash. , and fo rmer member of the Clark County High Capacity Transit Task Force, speaking as a private citizen In my letter to Gov. Gregoire, I asked her to imagine a morning commute to downtown Portland in a lounge chair with coffee and a view of Mt.Hood. You arrive at Portland Union Station. This is possible if the existing Columbia River rail bridge is modernized. This would be a lot cheaper than the current proposal. This kind of service is al active in place with the Westside Express Service commuter rail in Washington County. Chris Rall, citizen of Portland I am pertain about the resiliency of our transportation infrastructure. We dont have a system that will handle change magnitudes in gas prices very well. This project is going in the wrong direction and is going to double the width of the superhighway.As a taxpayer, Im pertain about that kind of investment. Id like to see least-cost options, phasing, and smaller projects that could meet the demand in that area. Todd Coleman, deputy executive director of the Port of Vancouver The Port supports the refinements package. In Washington, one in tether jobs is related to trade. While we prefer a six-lane option, we understand the need for compromise with a five-lane option for now. Were also a member of the 75member Vancouver Freight Alliance, which supports the refinements proposal, as well.In the end, some(prenominal) sides of the river will have to compromise, but this option provides 90 percent of the benefits at 75 percent of the cost, so we recommend you move forward with these refinements. Jim Howell, an resister of the Mt. Hood Freeway Its time to stop this one million dollars per month madness. The myth of 15 hours per day of congestion is a disingenuous catch flat tactic by the Oregon and Washington highway departments. It is ground on the ridiculous assumption that nothing can be done to stem freeway traffic. Non-freeway solutions were never seriously considered.Its time to go back to the drawing boa rd. Chris Smith, citizen transportation activist Its important to get the Purpose and Need story right. It leads with congestion and doesnt mention each global warming or peak oil. State and local g everywherenments have adopted strong policy statement regarding these. I urge you to amend the Purpose and Need and then do a supplemental draft EIS. Joe Rowe, Portland resident I live two blocks from I-5 and genus Rosa Parks port. I can see cars bumper to bumper during rush hour at Albina Street because drivers know that getting off the freeway is faster than staying on I-5.I hear politicians lie and say theyre environmentalists and say we need this project for the jobs. The cost does not include the cost of the bonds to buy this bridge on acknowledgement. It will become a $10 billion bridge because the cost of this bridge will double just like the tram. Richard Bullington, Clark County resident How is light rail to Clark County a good use of public money? For 12 trains an hour, you move maybe 2,400 people per hour in the peak direction. To spend $750 million to serve that number of people seems a bit ideological. I rode the MAX to get here, so Im a train guy, but please think about this. 360/737-2726 503/256-2726 WWW. COLUMBIARIVERCROSSING. ORG 700 WASHINGTON STREET, SUITE 300, VANCOUVER, WA 98660 DECEMBER 4, 2009 MEETING SUMMARY COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING (CRC) PROJECT SPONSORS COUNCIL Brian Gard, co-executive director of the Columbia River Crossing Coalition I urge you to approve the clarified package. Please see my letter for more detail. Please consider the breadth of support for this project as reflected in our list of members. We ask that you keep this project moving forward. The work done to date is good work.The work to be done by 27,000 workers who will build the crossing will be good work, as well. Carl Larson, Portland resident The bridge we have today is inadequate. As a bicyclist, I hate to ride across it. The way I get stu ff via freight is stuck in single-occupancy fomite congestion. But the $4. 2 billion plan to fix it still prioritizes single-occupancy vehicle trip up. The cheap knock-off being proposed today does a worse job. We should go back to the drawing board and put our money where our mouth is. Chelsea Wright Im opposed to this bridge because there are better options that havent been onsidered. Im a big fan of public transportation. If you have all this technology and the money available, wherefore wouldnt you consider other options? Its obvious that a car-oriented culture is a destructive way of life. Please consider the effects to upcoming generations. mara Gross, policy director with Coalition for a Livable Future We have long supported a solution to I-5 that supports reliable transit, transportation, supports good land use planning and addresses global warming. Your proposal is a non-solution. You still have 12-lanes capacity and no plan for how to manage gather up.Thank you to Mayo r Adams and Council President Bragdon for their comments, and to Mayorelect Leavitt for his comments about low-income communities and communities of color. The refinement plan makes a decision with hundreds of millions in public dollars to avoid environmental review. We need a new plan that puts the values of this community first. Pam Naugle Im a 16-year resident on Hayden Island in the mobile home park. Sixty percent of us are disabled and seniors. Our Safeway butt in is our only source of fresh nutrient and pharmaceuticals. You need to think before you tear down a store that is so vital to our living.For those of us who dont own a vehicle and cant afford lift services, please think this over seriously. Michelle Poyourow, advocate for the Bicycle Transportation Alliance Our two primary interests in this project are that it include a great walking and biking route and that it foster healthy, bikable neighborhoods on both sides of the river. The CRC plan considered earlier and also today fails on both counts. It was only after two years that the BTA became an opponent of the project. It will take more than refinements of a plan base on flawed assumptions and weakly define outcomes.Please start with a new vision for success that is a truly green project we can support. Jonathan Irwin Those of you who are elected will be responsible for your decisions. Please rethink and redraft this plan with true public involvement and local control. Please keep the departments of transportation at the back burner since theyre just route builders. You need to more carefully consider climate, equity, public transit, walking and biking options. For everyone here today opposed to the bridge in its current form, there are ascorbic acid more who have to be at work or didnt know this was happening.Ed Barnes, Vancouver resident, former member of the Washington State Transportation Commission and former co-chair of the I-5 Transportation and Trade Partnership For the last 15 year s, Ive talked to hundreds of people on both sides of the river about this project. It may have some flaws, but overall it covers all the elements for bicyclists and prosys, freight, transit and commuters. You need to do something. Something is better than nothing. This project will also create jobs for the unemployed. Marcela Alcantar Im a small business woman.Im concerned that there arent many people of color in this room today and in the past. Im concerned about the lack of leadership on that. I intend in this project and that it will create jobs and sustainability. Ive been asking for opportunities for firms like mine and I havent seen it happen. Please consider professional services like mine on this project. Ron Swaren The problem with the CRC proposal is that its not realistic. Our metro area is slated to grow and having one or two crossings is not enough for this region. Our group has advocated a third bridge, which would be cost effective and incorporate solutions.Andrew Plambeck, Portland resident Im concerned about our tax dollars going to this project. Mayor Adams and Councilor Bragdon have released a very thoughtful statement. Redesign this project from the group up to reduce emissions and prioritize alternative transportation. Our city and region depend on it. 4 360/737-2726 503/256-2726 WWW. COLUMBIARIVERCROSSING. ORG 700 WASHINGTON STREET, SUITE 300, VANCOUVER, WA 98660 DECEMBER 4, 2009 MEETING SUMMARY COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING (CRC) PROJECT SPONSORS COUNCILTom Buchele, Pacific Environmental Advocacy Center at Lewis and Clark Law School We represent groups like the Coalition for a Livable Future and others concerned with the NEPA process. The draft EIS was deeply flawed. There needs to be a supplemental draft EIS. Regulation 40cfr1502. 9c requires a SDEIS if there are substantial changes or new reading, and we think $650 million is a substantial change. There is new data expected from the tolling study, so this should nt all be dumped in the FEIS, as that would be a travesty of the NEPA process.David Thompson, Portland resident and retired physician I encourage people to get their colonoscopies and cholesterol checked. Were not going to meet our environmental goals with the way this project is designed. I read The Oregonian today saying were looking at the next hundred years with this project and I dont believe it. When I jogged over here I was almost run over by a 16-year old in his brand new car talking on his cell phone. We have too many cars in this city, state and world. This is a good opportunity to interpret out an alternative.Erick Reddekopp, co-chair of Hayden Island Livability Project, a grassroots group Youre receiving over 600 petition signatures against the refinement package due to the impacts including the Safeway store and other restaurants and businesses on the island. Its worrisome to hear that money and funding seems to be the biggest reason to do this refinement package now. Im unemployed so I understand the need for jobs. But this is our chance to be a progressive city again. The refinement package has so many problems with it. Sharon Nasset Thank you for not limiting public comment to 30 minutes.The PSC has not had a representative of the community and neighborhoods. You need an environmental justice representative to sit there from each side of the river. You havent followed the NEPA process with a full range of alternatives. There must be a supplemental draft EIS with the amount of changes proposed. For those who want to get more involved on a third bridge proposal or to stop this process, 5003 N. Lombard has a huge space and were glad to have people come work on this process. Herman Kachold Im involved with the Hayden Island Livability Project, a new grassroots group.We need more crossings, a bridge to the west of the rail bridge and one at 33rd Avenue. Spread the traffic out more. That would be a better approach. Tom Dana, co-chair of the Hayden Island Livability Project and former steering delegation member for the Hayden Island Plan Its clear the comments here are 10 or 20 to 1 opposed to this proposal. This bridge is for 100 years. Lets not cave in to immediate pressure just to get it done. Lets go back and look at what really needs to be done. Kaitlin Hale, StopTheCRC Coalition, resident of SE Portland I urge you to reconsider the revised plan you might be voting on today.We need transportation options for people, not more single occupancy vehicles. I urge you to solve traffic congestion, climate change, and the lack of employment in our region, and social and environmental justice by not rushing through with this plan and going back to the drawing board. Transportation infrastructure doesnt just happen but exists in our cities and region and needs a bigger picture viewpoint. Dan McFarling, Portland resident When this project was first initiated, the focus was on how to accommodate more force vehicles. Thats a study f law.Instead, how can we meet our community and transportation needs? If you would read the proposals in the Smarter Bridge brochure, youd see that it provides better options for a phased, affordable project and a stronger economy. Pam Ferguson, resident of Hayden Island manufactured home community and member of the Hayden Island Livability Project Thank you for allowing more time for public comment. I represent a group with over 1,700 residents, 60 percent of whom are seniors. They dont drive off the island, which is a good thing. Please give Safeway or a grocery retailer special dispensation.Co-chair Hewitt thanked the commenters. 5 360/737-2726 503/256-2726 WWW. COLUMBIARIVERCROSSING. ORG 700 WASHINGTON STREET, SUITE 300, VANCOUVER, WA 98660 DECEMBER 4, 2009 MEETING SUMMARY COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING (CRC) PROJECT SPONSORS COUNCIL Draft refinement recommendation Mayor Adams inquired whether PSC will be asked to vote on a recommendation at todays meeting. Coch air Hewitt verbalize he doesnt foreknow a vote and cannot anticipate outcomes of the meeting. Discussion may require more time and another meeting. Hewitt introduced the CRC presenters. Staff presentationRichard Brandman, CRC project co-director, said the project has been working hard for the last six months to refine the project design, reduce costs, and address issues raised previously and again this morning in public comments. The project wants to achieve approximately the same benefits as the previous proposal, and still meet the purpose and need goals, but at a lower cost. The refined design has been reviewed with the CRCs senior staff advisory group, the CRC Performance Measures Advisory Group, the freight community, and others. There is a lot of technical documentation behind the proposals and staff can share those with PSC if desired.Staff has analyse the five-mile project area from one end to the other using the purpose and need goals such as transit, freight and safet y as well as standard value engineering techniques and a consideration of what elements can be deferred or reused. The revised cost estimate range is $2. 6 to $3. 6 billion, with a apparent cost of $3. 2 billion. Kris Strickler, deputy project director, gave an overview of the proposed design refinements, starting from the Marine start out interchange at the south and going north. Marine Drive is the largest freight access interchange.The staff recommendation still includes a single-point urban interchange with one traffic signal. Moving north, the North Portland Harbor bridge would be reused and the highway mainline profile would be lowered on Hayden Island. For the river crossing, Strickler said, some of the cost savings came from having more information about soil conditions and liquefaction characteristics. Other savings come from a proposed 10-lane bridge with standard shoulders, rather than a 12-lane bridge. Its smaller than the original proposal by 16 feet total (eight fee t per bridge).In Vancouver, two areas would be refined The northbound lane from SR 14 to SR 500 would be reduced and the SR 500 north ramps would be eliminated. In the future, SR 500 has several intersections that would be converted to full interchanges. There are elements that staff proposes not be included in the projects initial capital investment a discussion about that would happen for future prioritization. Patricia McCaig, CRC communications, said staff has presented information on the design refinements to many audiences over the last several weeks.A key theme staff heard was the desire, especially from Hayden Island residents, for an opportunity to provide comments directly to the PSC, which is why an extended public comment sitting was included in todays meeting. For the freight community, the proposals for the Victory Blvd. braid and Marine Drive interchange were cause for concern they were afraid it would impede traffic capital punishment for freight. But, she said, the y ultimately understood that the refinements meet the initial needs and urged the project to move forward. Mayor Adams, she added, has been very clear about the importance of Marine Drive and Hayden Island.The intent of the Hayden Island Plan and the CRCs involvement has been to improve the livability, safety, and access on the island. The refinement was hard for many people to hear because they had spent so such(prenominal) time working on the Hayden Island Plan. But there is a growing appreciation for the benefits of the refinement coupled with real concerns about the potential for losing the Safeway grocery store and effects to access on and off the island. Today, connectivity on the island is very difficult. Staff believes that the refinement proposal improves this by including the new east/west Tomahawk Island Drive connection.There is support for this new road but concern that the refinement proposes recessing it below grade in a way that might discourage that connectivity. T here is also concern about potential detrimental effects to commercial and retail space on the island. Hayden Island residents also want to see improved bike and pedestrian connectivity. McCaig directed members to their packet of materials, which contains about 20 letters and emails with a mix of views, from those who support the refinements to those who dont, and those in the freight community who accept the refinements but believe that moving from 12 to 10 lanes is shortsighted. 6 60/737-2726 503/256-2726 WWW. COLUMBIARIVERCROSSING. ORG 700 WASHINGTON STREET, SUITE 300, VANCOUVER, WA 98660 DECEMBER 4, 2009 MEETING SUMMARY COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING (CRC) PROJECT SPONSORS COUNCIL There is widespread understanding, she concluded, of the fundamental need to reduce the project cost and still protect its function and benefits. Discussion The discussion below moved(p) on the project schedule in relation to federal funding deadlines, as well as each PSC members vie ws of the proposed design refinements. In addition, a guiding policy statement proposed by Mayor Adams and Council President Bragdon on Dec. (see appendix) informed the discussion. Co-chair Hewitt said some PSC members are ready to adopt the refinement and others are not. He suggested scheduling a meeting in January for a fuller discussion not only of the refinement but also of the performance measures, effects to Hayden Island, and more. He added that the right partner agency staff should be co-located at the CRC project office and integrated with CRC staff to work on issues that need to be addressed. But, he said, we should applaud the work completed to date. Mayor Adams said that is a very useful suggestion.The issues PSC needs to discuss merit more frequent meetings for a period of time. Mayor Pollard said he would like to remind everyone of the constraints from federal funding deadlines. Richard Brandman clarified that the project is on course to complete the final environmenta l impact statement in summer 2010 and have a record of decision by the end of 2010, which would allow final design in 2011, followed by transit funding, and the start of construction as early as 2012. Mayor Adams said the Obama administration has pushed back by 18 months the federal transportation funding reauthorization.For the publics benefit, he said, there isnt a firm deadline that would block the funding application. He asked for clarification whether there is any agency deadline. The urgency is real, he said, but we do have more time than today or next month to address these issues. Director Garrett responded by saying its a very fluid conversation and we cant rely on that 18-month time frame. We need to continue communicating with the federal delegation. While theres not a specific calendar, he said he would be very nervous to say we have 18 months. The project needs to move forward.The federal government is going to move forward, we just dont know when. Mayor Adams said he i s not suggesting a delay of 18 months, but he does not think a decision about refinements is needed in January. Director Garrett said there is time to engage this issue. He highlighted the importance of articulating what outstanding questions still need to be answered. There are jobs, he said, not only through the laborers but also the design work. Mayor Adams said there are opportunities for more jobs in the short run with professional service firms.Metro Council President Bragdon said that when the project does move forward, there needs to be broad support. Lets look at a budget, he said, in terms of fiscal capacity, not just a specific price tag. Whats a realistic assessment of the funding prospects in the two state legislatures? We should start with whats our foreseeable revenue, he said. Co-chair Hewitt Well include financial information on the next agenda. Mayor Adams said he provided half a dozen questions via email to CRC staff regarding design refinements and still needs so me follow up.Mayor Adams provided PSC members with copies of the projects initial written responses to these questions and an internal memo written by the city attorneys office (see appendix). Mayor Pollard said sometimes staff doesnt know what PSC members want and that members need to make it clearer to staff. Regarding decision making, he said PSC wants staff to keep doing analysis that moves the project forward. For the proposed design refinements, he can accept the ones in Vancouver, but hopes some accommodations can be made for Hayden Island. He said he has been working on this bridge for more than 10 years.The Vancouver City Council voted unanimously over a year ago for a 12-lane bridge. Anything other than that is unacceptable for the City of 7 360/737-2726 503/256-2726 WWW. COLUMBIARIVERCROSSING. ORG 700 WASHINGTON STREET, SUITE 300, VANCOUVER, WA 98660 DECEMBER 4, 2009 MEETING SUMMARY COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING (CRC) PROJECT SPONSORS COUNCIL Vancouver . There is a letter dated Jan. 27, 2009 from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), outlining the agencys support for a 12-lane bridge. The bridge isnt being built for single-occupancy vehicles from Vancouver.Its for the economy of the entire region and the West Coast. Please look beyond the short term. Everyone in this room has an agenda, but our positions should be based on the future needs of the region. Through all these meetings, he said, we agreed on certain things Portland wants light rail and tolls, Vancouver wants highway lanes. What does Vancouver get out of this deal? A 10-lane bridge that doesnt meet the needs of the future. I understand it could be striped for 12 lanes in 10 or 15 years. But who is going to give that exclusion? Probably FHWA. How do we know theyll look favorably upon it?That exception is needed now for the future. If it cant be provided, the Vancouver City Council probably wont support it. Who in this room is looking out for those people not born y et? We talked about making the most environmentally correct bridge. We can do that. General manager Fred Hansen said there are obviously going to be studies forthcoming regarding performance measures. TriMet has embedded staff at the project office. The Hayden Island Plan is very important. TriMet staff has been working very hard to preserve and enhance the islands livability.The refinements make that a challenge we must wrestle with that. How can we use transit-oriented development funding tools to create the vision for a whole range of services on the island, including grocery stores and pharmacies? Station area development around the light rail station is a catalyst to achieve that. We all recognize that any large project like this is difficult to move forward without consensus and I trust that well get there, he said. Director Garrett thanked Mayor Pollard for his leadership and long-time participation in the project.He said there is staff embedded at the office but its incumben t upon PSC members to be specific with their concerns because their questions have a cost. He said he has told Council President Bragdon that he is struggling with concerns about the pathway for funding because the project is walking down the same pathway as any other project. Director Garrett said he appreciates the passion and concerns of the Hayden Island residents no(prenominal) of that is lost on ODOT or the CRC project. He said the CRC project can help to grow a community with transit-oriented development on Hayden Island, which will happen only because of the project.He said he wants something to bloom there and that the catalyst is the CRC project. Councilmember Leavitt said that from the C-TRAN perspective, theyre trying to meet the needs of the 21st century. He doesnt see lanes getting widened south of the project area. But hes very optimistic about the project. Over a year ago, the C-TRAN board of directors agreed that public transit is a vital part of the project. C-TRA N is committed to improving transit access, including with express buses. The project needs to achieve social, environmental, and fiscal equity.We want to be ready to jump when federal funding is ready, he said. Today is another step forward in a dynamic and evolving process and he is looking forward to staff working closely together. Commissioner Stuart said there is a reason why hes wearing his University of Oregon shirt today. He has lived in both states and cities of this project. He said we talk about a vision for the future, but a lot of times its a different vision. Were trying to bridge not just two states but two visions. With the proposed design refinements, there is a path to success.It involves a lot of what Council President Bragdon and Mayor Adams have put forward with the use of performance measures to guide the process. If we can show that its from a sense of priority and the parts of the vision we share, he said, its going to require us agreeing on key performance m easures. We let the experts do their work to run the data. If we can get to that, he said, he sees a good chance of moving forward in a way that is right for both sides of the river. He said he sees the path forward its just going to take a lot of work to get there.Co-chair Hewitt said he has letters from Co-chair Hal Dengerink and Secretary Paula Hammond, endorsing the design refinements and asking the project to move forward. Council President Bragdon said he thinks the group agrees on some common goals, but the flaws in the design refinements are the same flaws he sees in the original proposal. The common goals have not been applied in the refinements. In the case of Hayden Island, the project is supposed to make it a better place, but that target has not been met. We have to be very sophisticated and look to new methodology, not that which was state of the art 20 years ago.Going forward, he said, lets link hands on the broader values we agree on. He said he respects the discipl ine of traffic engineering as much as he 8 360/737-2726 503/256-2726 WWW. COLUMBIARIVERCROSSING. ORG 700 WASHINGTON STREET, SUITE 300, VANCOUVER, WA 98660 DECEMBER 4, 2009 MEETING SUMMARY COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING COLUMBIA RIVER CROSSING (CRC) PROJECT SPONSORS COUNCIL does physicians or accountants, but we need to bring more to bear on it. He said he cannot vote for any more blank checks on this project. He has asked for information and independent audits. We need to work much more closely together.If we do that, well have something we can be proud of. Co-chair Hewitt disagreed with Council President Bragdon about abandoning the goals and said the refinements are consistent with them. But, he said, well have to discuss this more in forthcoming meetings. Mayor Adams said he wants to lay out why now is the right time to pursue what he and Council President Bragdon have put on the table in the form of their guiding policy statement (see appendix). Since March, Adams said, he has been pa rt of a climate action planning process and has become smarter about what it means to plan for climate action.As a result, some of the questions have become more compelling in the last 7-8 months. He looks forward to working with Mayor-elect Leavitt, but the question of tolls is on the table and its a fundamental part of the projects purpose and need. Mayor Adams said he is accountable to bringing the right project to his city council, and if future trips gridlock in the City of Portland, were in big trouble. Because of his work on the Sellwood Bridge, he also fears that CRC could consume future available funding for other projects. He said CRC will have to be the most actively managed transportation system in the U. S. its the least-cost approach. Lastly, Hayden Island is a feisty, wonderful group of Portlanders who have worked with the City on the Hayden Island Plan. There will be no force out loss of local services on the island, he said, and whatever we move forward with must h ave a solution. Co-chair Hewitt clarified some of the PSCs next steps To reconvene in January and possibly more frequently to continue integrating staff in the project office so there is a transparent relationship to continue working on details of the design refinements and performance measures and how they connect to have a more specific understanding about how refinements fit nto a realistic budget and to talk about Hayden Island, the environment, and livability issues and to continue the discussion in a collegial and positive way. He said Councilmember Leavitt will be attending the next PSC meeting as the Mayor of Vancouver. Cochair Hewitt thanked Mayor Pollard who, he said, is a man of great character. He has always been constructive and has held the best interest of the community in mind. costing study update This agenda item was not covered and will be discussed at a future meeting. Performance measures updateThis agenda item was not covered and will be discussed at a future meeting. Next meeting Friday, January 22, 2010 1000 a. m. 1230 p. m. Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) 11018 NE 51st Circle, Vancouver, WA Appendices concomitant A Columbia River Crossing highroad to Construction, December 2, 2009 form _or_ system of government Statement from Council President Bragdon and Mayor Adams Appendix B Email correspondence between Catherine Ciarlo of Mayor Adams office and Richard Brandman, CRC project director, November 30, 2009 Appendix C Memorandum from Terence Thatcher, lieutenant City Attorney, o Catherine Ciarlo, Office of Mayor Sam Adams, December 4, 2009 9 360/737-2726 503/256-2726 WWW. COLUMBIARIVERCROSSING. ORG 700 WASHINGTON STREET, SUITE 300, VANCOUVER, WA 98660 attachment A Columbia River Crossing Road to Construction Policy Statement for Council President Bragdon and Mayor Adams December 2, 2009 I. Guiding Policy Statement A change in direction is needed for the Columbia River Crossing Project to be successfully accom plished. The current proposal is mired in financial challenges, and the region risks missing critical federal deadlines unless we change course.The project refinement recommendation before the PSC would defer or remove certain elements of the proposed project and result in a cost reduction of $515 $650 million, or almost 15% of project capital costs. We believe that this is a step in the right direction, but more fundamental change is required to match the context and scale of the project to realistic federal, state and local revenues (including tolls), essentially designing the project to budget design the project to achieve specific performance measures make essential, urgent project decisions in collaboration with members of the Project Sponsors Council and their staffs daylight the projects internal decision making to ensure an unrestricted flow of information to make all of the above possible In addition, it is important to underscore that we reject calls from project opp onents to cancel or restart the project, as too much solid work has already been done. II. Refinement Action Requested at December 4th PSC Meeting We believe that an informed endorsement of any project changes by the PSC is critical to advance the project However, the materials provided for the December 4th meeting do not include adequate analysis of refinement impacts to support a decision.The PSC has previously requested that the project team use the performance measures being substantial by the Performance Measures Advisory Group to guide the project refinement process and assess the effect on key interests and stakeholders, such as the freight industry and the ports. We have not yet seen analysis of potential refinements accord to those specific measures. While we understand the need to move the project forward, the likely 18-month delay in federal transportation bill reauthorization gives us a window to make sure we get the project right.We believe the current proposal conta ins incomplete and potentially flawed assumptions underlying the original proposal, particularly assumptions about demand forecasts, tax and toll revenues available for the project, and what those revenues can buy. In addition, we need to see performance-based criteria used to guide reconfiguration of the project, as the PSC has requested. The Project Sponsor Council needs to see all the way how the project and proposed refinements stack up against those criteria, including cost. APPENDIX AWe are proposing that PSC agency staff work directly with CRC project staff in a short, delineate window to continue the current refinement work to create a realistic road to construction that includes 1. A reliable budget based on realistic revenue projections 2. A realistic assessment of the relationship between tolls, updated demand forecasts, desired land use patterns and size of the CRC facilities 3. Project elements that are firm based in performance outcomes 4. Recognition that the int erstate system must function in concert with local ystems In short, we believe the Project Sponsors Council needs to make decisions about the many attributes of the project based on how different options perform, for the goals we all agree on. We need to have that information before us so we can realistically evaluate options and buy the best product which available resources can buy. APPENDIX B APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX C APPENDIX C The conceptual finance plan below shows a range of CRC Project cost estimates based on the proposed project refinement recommendations and the latest results of the Cost Estimate Validation Process (CEVP).Costs and revenues are shown in year -ofexpenditure dollars. The finance plan is preliminary refinements are in process based on the recent results from the toll sensitivity, CEVP, and other analyses. The finance plan may be adjusted based on legislative, DOT, FHWA/FTA, public, and PSC reviews. Preliminary Finance Plan Scenarios In Billions of Yea r-of-Expenditure Dollars 60% Probability 90% Probability Highway Transit $2. 40 $0. 79 $2. 65 $0. 89 Total $3. 19 $3. 54 $1. 15-$1. 29 $0. 75-$0. 85 $1. 15-$1. 19 $0. 40 $0. 75-$0. 79 $1. 25-$1. 49 $0. 90-$1. 00 $1. 15-$1. 39 $0. 40 $0. 75-$0. 89 $3. 19 $3. 54 Cost RevenuesTolls ODOT and WSDOT Federal Highway Transit ( newfound Starts) Total The plan calls for securing $400 million in Projects of National and Regional Significance funding from the upcoming federal transportation reauthorization act. While the toll rate structure for the CRC Project will not be established until after tolling is authorized by the Washington legislature, the range of financial capacity from tolls that are shown above are based on the Tolling Study Committee analysis, which found a variety of rate structures capable of providing the amounts shown no specific toll rate structure is assumed in the finance plan.The amount shown for the DOTs is subject to an intergovernmental agreement between the DOTs al locating cost responsibility and legislative approvals of the required funding, and could vary depending on final disposition of other elements of the f inance plan. The New Starts funding presumes the recent statutory language secured by Senator Murray, and requires FTA approval of a Full Funding Grant Agreement based on the New Start rating regulations. Appendix C CRC Tolling Study Committee ReportTravel beg Forecasting, Revenue Projections, Determination of Net Revenues, and Financial Capacity Analysis Travel Demand Forecasting Regional travel demand models are used to forecast how people may choose to travel in the future given project growth patterns for population and employment as well as future transportation facilities. The Portland-Vancouver area regional travel demand model used for the Columbia River Crossing (CRC) project was developed jointly by the Portland-area Metro Regional Government (Metro) and the Southwest Washington Regional Transportation Council (RTC).The model, run by Metro and peer-reviewed by a national panel of experts in October 2008, applies a four-step process in estimating future travel demands timber 1 Person-trips are estimated from adopted regional growth projections and adopted regional transportation plans. Growth projections include population and employment forecasts throughout the metropolitan region. Transportation plans include future transportation facilities, including roadways, transitways, and roll and pedestrian facilities.Step 2 Predicted person-trips are then distributed to zones across the metropolitan region. Over 25,000 network routes, or links, are used in the model, as well as over 2,000 transportation analysis zones. The model predicts how many people will want to travel from one zone to another via different links. Step 3 Person-trips between each of the zones are broken down by mode of travel (drive alone, carpool, transit, bicycle, walking) based on each options attractiveness when considering tra vel time and cost, as well as each travelers socioeconomic characteristics.Travel costs include parking fees, transit fares, tolls, and automobile operating costs. Step 4 The model assigns each trip to a specific routing in the models network. For the CRCs tolling analysis work, the model predicts how many people are projected to cross the Columbia River on I-5 and I-205 via automobile and transit. The model is used to predict weekday peak period vehicle volumes across each bridge, which are ulterior used to develop daily traffic demands.The regional travel demand model is appropriate for comparing the relative weekday effects of travel across the Columbia River for different tolling scenarios. The model used for tolling analysis purposes allows relative generalizations to be made about I-5 and I-205, including vehicle and transit trips, and the duration of vehicular congestion experienced along each river crossing. Daily and hourly traffic volumes in 2030 would vary for the I-5 br idge and the I-205 bridge with different tolling levels.Based on information included in the model regarding how much people value their time for different types of trips, lowering or raising toll rates affects how many people choose to pay the specific toll, take away to the alternative bridge, travel during another time of the day, take transit, or travel to a different destination altogether. The scenario analysis found CRC Tolling Study Committee Report Appendix C 1 January 2010 For most of the I-5 only toll scenarios, the majority of drivers would not change their travel patterns.Some would choose a new destination or a non-tolled route. Diversion to transit is minimal due to the already addd ridership associated with project improvements. Route diversion tends to increase as toll rates increase however, the percentage of diversion tends to be lower during peak periods when travelers willingness to pay tolls may be higher and/or alternative routes are congested, and thus, t ime consuming. For scenarios that toll both the I-5 and I-205 bridges, traffic levels would be higher on I-5 and lower on I-205 compared to tolling only the I-5 bridge.However, compared to the No Toll project scenario, total cross-river traffic demand would be less on both the I-5 and I-205 bridges as many trips would divert to transit or not be made across the Columbia River. See the affiliated spreadsheet titled Traffic Effects for Tolling Scenarios for more detailed information about traffic diversion, average daily traffic volumes and hours of congestion predicted for each of the tolling scenarios. Additional work refining one or two likely scenarios will be undertaken to inform financial planning and final rate setting prior to event toll revenue bonds.That analysis would independently review and refine many key assumptions, including land use projections, and also examine parts of the network beyond the I-5 and I-205 river crossings, such as key interchanges with these high ways, and critical roadways and intersections. An updated and detailed toll traffic and revenue report is warranted before issuing debt, and would be required by the credit rating agencies if any of the bonds were to be backed solely by toll revenues. Revenue ProjectionsThe annual traffic and revenue projections produced for the CRC project are derived from outputs of the Metro regional travel demand model. The Metro model employs inputs for users values of time as a surrogate for the relationship of time and cost reflecting the potential toll on the I-5 bridge crossing. The regional model was further supplemented by the development of a corridor level traffic model (VISSIM) which provided traffic operation capabilities to estimate the effect of future congestion in the corridor.This became the basis for post-processing the model results to refine traffic demand projections. The traffic and revenue projections show both the annualization of the direct Metro model results and the ref ined post-processed results, the latter of which bracket the mid-range of anticipated traffic and revenue impacts. Ten toll scenarios that vary toll rates and toll locations (I-5 only or both I-5 and I-205 bridges) were developed by the CRC team for analysis, in conjunction with the Oregon and Washington departments of transportation.Toll rates were assumed to vary by time of day according to a fit(p) schedule that applies higher toll rates in peak periods and lower rates during off-peak times when demand is less. Toll rates were originally specified in constant year 2006 dollars in the projects Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) however the actual tolls paid are assumed to increase with expected inflation, projected at 2. 5 percent per year. See Exhibit 1 for information about each scenario. CRC Tolling Study Committee Report Appendix C 2 January 2010It is expected that the toll collection will be all-electronic, which allows tolls to be collected without toll booths causi ng drivers to slow down to pay tolls. Thus, drivers would either have a transponder, paying the rates noted in Exhibit 1, or the vehicle would be identified via the license plate, in which case a $1. 00 pay-by-plate processing fee would be added to each transaction. For example, a vehicle traveling during the peak period (6 am to 10 am) without a transponder would be charged $2. 00 positive(p) the $1. 00 processing fee, or $3. 00 for their trip in one direction.Exhibit 1. Tolling Scenarios Evaluated Min/Max Toll govern (2006$) Tolling I-5 Only Scenario 1D Additional Price Points Scenario 1E 1. 5x DEIS Toll Rate Scenario 1F 2x DEIS Toll Rate Scenario 1G 3x DEIS Toll Rate $2. 69 / $5. 38 $3. 00 / $6. 00 Flat Toll Rate $2. 02 / $4. 03 $2. 00 / $4. 00 Scenario 1C $1. 34 / $3. 36 $1. 50 / $3. 00 Lower than DEIS Toll Rate $2. 22 $1. 00 / $2. 50 Scenario 1B $1. 34 / $2. 02 $1. 65 DEIS Toll Rate $1. 34 / $2. 69 $1. 00 / $1. 50 Scenario 1A Min/Max Toll Rate (2018$) $1. 00 / $2. 00 Scenario s Analyzed Tolling I-5 and I205 DEIS Toll Rate 1. 34 / $2. 69 Scenario 2A DEIS Toll Rate $2. 00 / $4. 00 $2. 69 / $5. 38 Scenario 2B Lower than DEIS Toll Rate $2. 00 / $3. 00 $2. 69 / $4. 03 Scenario 2C Lower I-205 Toll I-5 $2. 00 / $4. 00 I-205 $2. 00 / $3. 00 I-5 $2. 69 / $5. 38 I-205 $2. 69 / $4. 03 1 2 Toll Schedule Type symmetric Variable Toll Schedule Symmetric Fixed Toll Schedule July 1, 2018 (FY 2019) Each Way Symmetric Variable Toll Schedule 1 Pre-Completion Tolling Tolling Start Date $4. 03 / $8. 07 $1. 00 / $2. 00 Tolls Collected Each Way Symmetric Variable Toll July 1, 2013 Schedule (FY 2014)Southbound Symmetric Variable Toll July 1, 2018 2 Schedule (FY 2019) Only Pre-Completion Tolling to be added to any other scenario A round-trip toll is collected on scenarios tolling Southbound only The rates for commercial vehicles are assumed to be proportionately greater than passenger cars, roughly as a function of the number of axles for a commercial vehicle. For the purposes of this analysis, it is assumed that commercial vehicles will pay on an N minus one basis based upon axles, that is, a five-axle truck would pay four times the passenger car rate (five minus one times the passenger rate).Model volumes were provided for medium (three-axle) and large (five-axle) trucks. The exact commercial toll schedule will be a function of the future development of the electronic toll collection system. Toll schedules assumed for each scenario are shown on the attached spreadsheets, Toll Rate Schedules for I-5 Scenarios and Toll Rate Schedules for I-5 and I-205 Scenarios. CRC Tolling Study Committee Report Appendix C 3 January 2010 Determination of Net Revenues To arrive at the portion of revenues available to support financial support via the repayment of debt, several eductions must be made from gross toll revenues and fees. Key among these deductions is the obligation to pay for toll collection and facility operation and alimony (O) costs for the bridge and ro adway. The deductions from gross revenues include the following Potential toll revenue lost due to uncollectable accounts Credit card and banking fees associated with toll payment and accounts Toll collection operations and maintenance costs, including maintenance, periodic replacement of equipment, back office costs and bridge insuranceRoutine operations and maintenance of the bridge and roadway facilities Facility O costs include routine maintenance of the bridge and all roadways within the project area as well as incident response for the project area. After gross revenues have paid all of the above deductions, including toll collection and facility O costs, the remaining net revenue is available for debt repayment. The net revenue stream represents the cash flow that can be used directly for financing to repay bonds, or to directly pay for construction if pre- accomplishment tolling is implemented.In addition to bond repayment, there will be a periodic need for renovation an d rehabilitation activities for the project. These costs are assumed to be funded out of special net revenues after annual debt repayments that result from the debt service coverage requirement placed on net revenues. A reserve account may be created that would be funded from these excess net toll revenues. Financial Capacity Analysis Tolling the I-5 bridge does not have the financial capacity to yield a funding contribution equal to the $2. 38 billion cost in year of expenditure dollars for the highway portion of the project.Rather, a number of funding sources will likely be needed to build the project, including federal and state (Oregon and Washington) funding sources combined with funding from tolls. For the purposes of this analysis, the bridge is assumed to be substantially completed by the end of fiscal year 2018, with revenue operations beginning on July 1, 2018 (state fiscal year 2019). Toll bond proceeds are assumed to be legitimate in the middle and latter years of cons truction to maximize their funding contribution, and other funding CRC Tolling Study Committee Report Appendix C 4 January 2010 ources are assumed to cover construction costs in the initial years. Other project improvements to the highway and interchanges would continue into 2019, and the last bonds needed to fund these completion activities are assumed to be issued after tolling has commenced. The CRC toll bonds were assumed to be backed by other revenue sources, and the full faith and credit of one or both states to provide the bonds with a credit rating and interest costs equivalent to that of general obligation debt of either state. The use of toll bonds will increase the total costs paid during and after construction due to the added interest and issuance osts. However, these financing costs are treated separately from the project capital cost during construction. Increased use of toll bonds will increase the total costs paid due to added interest and issuance. The construction cost does not increase as a result rather it adds a financing cost both during and after construction. State-backed bonds are limited by Washington State Constitution to a 30 year repayment period. Accordingly, debt with the maturity of up to 30 years was assumed to maximize the total proceeds that can be generated by the forecasted net toll revenue stream.A minimum debt service coverage factor of 1. 25 was assumed for state-backed debt whereby net toll revenues were maintained at 1. 25 times the projected annual debt service. The intent of this is to provide some protection against draws on the revenue sources pledged to backup toll revenues, such as motor vehicle fuel tax revenues, in the event of lower-than-projected toll revenue performance. Interest rates on state-backed bonds are assumed to be 6. 00 percent for current interest bonds (CIBs) and 6. 50 percent for capital appreciation bonds (CABs), based on the current double-A credit ratings in both states.Issuance costs are a ssumed to be 0. 2 percent of the total par amount of bonds issues for state-backed bonds. Additional costs would include 0. 5 percent of the par amount for current interest bonds for underwriting (underwriters discount) and 1. 0 percent of the par amount for capital appreciation bonds. Interest is assumed to be capitalized through the year before the project comple