Saturday, August 31, 2019
Enterprise architecture provides a framework for the business to add new applications, infrastructure, and systems for managing the lifecycle and the value of the current and future environments. Enterprise architecture provides the alignment across business strategy, IT strategy, and IT implementation. Enterprise architecture links the enterprise business strategy to its IT investments by ensuring a tight integration between the Business, Application, Information, and Infrastructure architecture layers. Each of these areas describes integrated sets of blocks should be selected so that the enterprise can achieve its overall business objectives. They also need to be made available so that projects can use them in the design, development and deployment of IT-base business systems. Enterprise Strategy Layer For most institutions, strategic planning and the efficient execution of related IT projects are hampered by lack of enterprise-wide views of the current business and IT landscape and it is difficult to establish a flexible, adaptable, and business-driven IT strategy. Therefore, this layer predominately describes an enterprise strategy concerning product portfolio and appropriate customer segments, appropriate delivery and distribution channels in the given market environment, competitors and core competencies, and capabilities of the company. Business Layer Developing an Enterprise Architecture involves providing the process and integrated tools to capture the as-is state of the organizationÃ¢â¬âthe business and IT ecosystemÃ¢â¬âand the desired, to-be state. Enterprise Architecture facilitates the creation of enterprise blueprints that show how business processes are now and how they can be implemented, exploiting the full range of capability of underlying IT architectural building blocks. Application Layer The proliferation of applications, systems and the platforms and their interdependencies make the process of adding and enhancing IT capabilities a risky proposition for the business unless there is an Enterprise Architecture Strategy. The Applications Layer supports the business and describes the required business functions in the underlying IT application systems. Information layer Information is the fuel that drives business artifacts; their flow generates value to the user. To transform raw data into meaningful information that provides additional insight and value to the business is one of the key objectives of the Enterprise Architecture. Infrastructure layerÃ The infrastructure layer consists of the network, server and storage infrastructure supporting higher-level functions such as applications, databases or e-mail servers. Due to cost pressure, business stakeholders demand more flexibility and agility also from this layer leading to higher degrees of virtualization and systems consuming less energy, reducing electricity costs. To summarize, Enterprise Architecture gives the business and IT stakeholders the big-picture perspective across business processes, information systems and technologies. Applying Enterprise architecture improves the predictability and consistency of project outcomes across the portfolio. Consistently repeatable and thus predictable project success is of utmost importance to achieve an orderly change required for driving effective and lasting transformations such as SOA initiatives while managing associated, inherent risks. Conceptual Approach to EAI Reference Architecture Information architecture The information architecture helps develop the information-centric, echnically compatible systems by providing a consistent approach to information technology across a Line of Business (LOB) or a larger organization. The information architecture provides the foundational information-relevant concepts and frameworks for dealing in a consistent and integrated manner with the technology to guarantee the responsiveness and trusted information insight that the business requires from its Information Layer. The information Architecture identifies the information centric components of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s IT environment and defines its relationship to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives. The information architecture also describes the principles and guidelines that enable consistent implementation of information technology solutions, how data and information are both governed and shared across the enterprise, and what needs to be done to gain business-relevant trusted information insight. Following are some examples of the core principles that guide an Information Architecture. * Access and exchange of information- Information services should provide unconstrained access to the right users at the right time. * Service re-use- Facilitate discovery, selection and re-use of services and whenever possible encourage the use of uniform interfaces. * Information governance- Adequate information technology should support the efficient execution of an Information Governance Strategy. Standards- A set of coherent standards for data and technology should be defined to promote simplifications across the Information Infrastructure. Enterprise Information Architecture The Enterprise Information Architecture is the framework that defines the information-centric principles, architecture models, standards, and processes that form the basis of making information technology decisions across the enterprise. The EIA translates the business requirements into informational strategies and defines what data components are needed by whom and when in the information supply chain. Furthermore, it addresses the need of the business to generate and maintain trusted information that is delivered by relevant data components. So why do we distinguish between an Information Architecture and an Enterprise Information Architecture? The enterprise in the definition adds the enterprise-wide business context to the definition of Information Architecture. The challenges faces by most organizations, from government to public enterprises, depend upon consistent decision making across multiple business units, departments, and individual projects. The EIA is a core component of the required framework for effective decision making by defining the guiding principles that dictate the organizations strategy to address business needs and the information centric technology infrastructure that supports them. The EIA defines the technical capabilities and processes the organization needs to manage data and information over its lifetime, optimize content-based operational and compliance processes, establish, govern and deliver trusted information, and optimize business performance. By aligning business needs with the technology and the information flows in the supply chain, EIA delivers flexibility agility and responsiveness to the business process and the organization as a whole. The primary goal of the EIA is to reduce complexity and thereby contribute to the elimination of all the factors that act as the inhibitors to change and address new business paradigms. Primary characteristics that can be used to distinguish a well-defined EIA implementation include the following: Gaining transparency- The information remains independent from application specifications, application implementations, and user interfaces. It provides a transparency layer between the information and application domains. * Considering enterprise business requirements- The architecture takes into account the overall information needs of the enterprise and specific LOBs or individual organizations. * Avoiding inconsistencies. It helps identify inconsistencies, conflicts, overlaps, and gaps in the data and information, and offers a concept, framework and methods to resolve this, and it is useful to select adequate solutions. Managing Service Level Agreements (SLA): It provides mechanisms for the definition and management of information-centric SLAs which can be monitored and enforced. * Enable decision making- The architecture enables more consistent and efficient IT decision making that is linked to business needs. It does this because it is both flexible and extensible. * Addressing reusability aspects. Enforcing and EIA means that information assets are shared and reused, avoiding data multiplication and thus reducing development, service, and support costs. * Addressing data scope.Ã The information Reference Model used by the enterprise describes the scope of the used data information supported by the EIA. * Defining a technology strategy. It establishes the framework upon which strategies adopted by the enterprise depend. In addition, it defines the set of principles that guide how an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s information systems and technology infrastructure are engineered. Reference Architecture The reference architecture provides a proven template for architecture for a particular domain or area of application that contains the supporting artifacts to enable their use. The Reference Architecture incorporates best practices resulting from work on a particular field and it also provides a common vocabulary to enable a common understanding while facilitating discussions around implementations. A reference architecture encapsulates at an abstract level the results and best practices derived from multiple deployments of solutions to a given business problem. They enable the logical sequence of tasks required to build a complete system. Reference Architectures provide a common format that facilitates the design and deployment of solutions repeatedly in a consistent manner. This, they are a valuable tool for IT Architects to help identify and assess gaps and reduce risks in the solution deployment cycle. Based on the requirements in a given area of an application, there are certain components shared between systems in the same area. The Reference Architecture identifies these components and indicates how they interconnect. The following are some key Reference Architecture characteristics. * Major foundational components or building blocks- They help to describe an end-to-end architecture solution. Common language- It simplifies communication when talking about systems of a given type. * Framework- The Reference Architecture is a framework for scope identification, roadmap definition, risk assessment, and gap assessment. * Foundation. It is a proven foundation for all solution designs in a domain (e. g. e-business solutions) The Reference Architecture leverages ideas from successful past implementations and lessons learned from troubled or failed projects and concentrates on simplifications, reuse, and usability, avoiding the complex details of the specific technology. It has the potential to evolve over time, meaning that after it has been constructed it requires maintenance with harvesting of best practices from projects as they are completed, including changes or additions to the Reference Architecture to handle situations that were not addressed. Within the wider solution architecture and deployment scope, there are significant advantages to using Reference Architectures. Following are few examples.
Ben Franklin and Frederick Douglass are the most prominent figures in American history who fought for freedom and equal rights, democracy and racial equality. Frederick Douglass was one of the most important figures in anti-slavery and civil rights movement which took place in the 19th century. Ben Franklin was a scientist, politician, diplomat and author. His social and political activity coincided with consolidation and creation of the nation and for this reason his liberal ideas had a great impact on formation of the nation. Thesis For both Franklin and Douglass, escape from oppressive circumstances became a turning point in their careers giving rise to political and social activity. The themes of survival and escape are closely connected with family background and early life of both men. Benjamin Franklin was of a family that for generations had lived by the sweat of its brow. Like his ancestors for generations back, he was bred to a trade through a long apprenticeship. That he became a journalist was not altogether accident. His Uncle Benjamin and his maternal grandfather had been versifiers, and his elder brother had become printer of the fourth newspaper set up in New England. Franklin describes his experience: Ã¢â¬Å"I disliked the trade and had a strong inclination to go to sea, but my father declared against it. But residing near the water I was much in it and on itÃ¢â¬ 1. 1. Franklin, B. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (with Introduction and Notes). (Macmillan, 1914), 7 Moreover, he learned early that writing, if one has a mastery of it, is useful for creating and controlling the opinions of men. The story of his teaching himself to write is generally known. Frederick Douglass was born a slave in 1818, and raised by his grandparents. Historians suppose that Ã¢â¬Å"DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ grandmother, Betsy Bailey, was the central figure in his early years1. In contrast to Franklin oppression and slavery were the driven forces which forced Douglass to escape from. At their twenties, Franklin and Douglass Ã¢â¬ËescapedÃ¢â¬Ë and run to big cities looking for job and career opportunities. At the age of 20, Douglass escaped from his master and went to New Bedford, Massachusetts. Ã¢â¬Å"No longer in the clutches of slavery, he was ready to take the next steps in his career as an orator, a preacher, and an abolitionistÃ¢â¬ 2. It was a watershed in his life. Ã¢â¬Å"This battle with Mr. Covey was the turning-point in my career as a slave. It rekindled the few expiring embers of freedom, and revived within me a sense of my own manhoodÃ¢â¬ 3. At the age of 18, Franklin broke indenture and run to Philadelphia. During a year, he worked for Samuel Keimer, a printer. On the October morning, 1723, when Franklin passed under the sign of the Bible, entered the shop of Bradford and asked for work, Samuel Keimer, a rival printer, had set up in the town. Bradford had nothing for the lad to do, but gave him a home and sent him to Keimer, by whom he was soon employed. He describes Ã¢â¬Å"I have been the more particular in this description of my journey, and shall be so of my first entry into that city, that you may in your mind compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made thereÃ¢â¬ 3. 1. Lampe, G. P. Frederick Douglass: FreedomÃ¢â¬â¢s Voice, 1818-1845. (Michigan State University Press 1998), 27. 2. Ibid, 26 3. Douglass, F. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. 1997. http://sunsite. berkeley. edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/ 4. Franklin, B. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (with Introduction and Notes). (Macmillan, 1914), 24 During a few months all went well, and Franklin spent his time courting and printing. Franklin was sent to Boston with a letter to Josiah, a printer. Josiah refused to take him, and Benjamin came back to Keith, who now dispatched him on a foolÃ¢â¬â¢s errand to London. He sailed with the belief that he was to have letters of introduction and letters of credit that he was to buy types, paper, and a press, and return to America a master printer. He reached London to find Keith a knave and himself a dupe. After the escape, both men started active political and social activity. Douglass became a lecturer for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. He started publishing activity and published several newspapers including Ã¢â¬Å"New National EraÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Frederick Douglass WeeklyÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"The North StarÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Frederick DouglassÃ¢â¬â¢ PaperÃ¢â¬ , etc. He made friends with Wendell Phillips and William Lloyd Garrison. During the Civil War, he was an adviser to President Abraham Lincoln. Philadelphia during 1727 to 1757 was a town of remarkable intellectual activity. During 1727-1730, Franklin emerges as the chief political leader and scientist, the energizing, galvanizing source of two-thirds of the townÃ¢â¬â¢s important enterprises 1. In autobiography, Douglass creates a vivid image of slavery as Ã¢â¬Å"a burdenÃ¢â¬ with deprives many people a chance to be free from oppression and humiliation. There is intensity of illusion because the author is presÃ ¬ent, constantly reminding readers of his unnatural wisdom. The moral quality of both works depends not on the validity of doctrines, but on the moral sense and arguments presented in the work. In both books, a certain amount of plot is based on emotional response. For Franklin, escape became a turning point in his career and world views. It was at this time that Benjamin founded the Junto, wrote his famous epitaph, 1. Lampe, G. P. Frederick Douglass: FreedomÃ¢â¬â¢s Voice, 1818-1845. (Michigan State University Press, 1998), 28, 2. Franklin, B. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (with Introduction and Notes). (Macmillan, 1914),. 27 in grew religious, composed a liturgy for his own use 1. For instance, to get a circulation Philadelphia Franklin resorted to clever expedients. He strove to make the Ã¢â¬Å"GazetteÃ¢â¬ amuse its readers, and to persuade the readers to write for the Ã¢â¬Å"Gazette;Ã¢â¬ for he well knew that every contributor would buy a dozen copies of the paper containing his piece from sheer love of seeing himself in print. Necessity to survive and hardship had a great impact on their moral values and views. Douglass supported equal rights movement and fight for emancipation in England where he earned the nickname Ã¢â¬Å"The Black OÃ¢â¬â¢ConnellÃ¢â¬ . After the Civil war, Douglass was selected the President of the Reconstruction-era FreedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s SavingÃ¢â¬â¢s Bank; Minister-General to the Republic of Haiti and marshal of the district of Columbia. In 1862 Frederick Douglass described him as a Ã¢â¬Å"miserable tool of traitors and rebelsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"quite a genuine representative of American prejudice and negro hatredÃ¢â¬ 1. For many Americans, religious norms represent the main code of values and norms determining specific mode of conduct personally and socially preferable. To some extent, this way of thinking gives strength and flexibility to both men who reflect their own identification with an entity Ã¢â¬â the nation. Desire for independence and self-identity can be interpreted as distinctively Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanÃ¢â¬ feature and unique style of life. The first acknowledged master of American literary expression, Franklin is also in the heroic tradition of American humor. FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s humor and wit-the gentle touch that won menÃ¢â¬â¢s hearts and affections and the bite of satire that disconcerted the enemies of America and the opponents of freedom and progress-reveal him in his most creative aspect as a pioneer of the American personality. His spirit of fair play, tolerance and compromise for the better good of all have elicited, over the years, the 1. Franklin, B. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (with Introduction and Notes). (Macmillan, 1914), 68. 2. Douglass, F. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. 1997. http://sunsite. berkeley. edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/ respectful admiration of Americans and the love of the whole world. Though vivid images and ideas of survival expressed in his work, Douglass appealed to emotions of slaves talking about ideas of independence, freedom and equal rights. Douglass writes: Ã¢â¬Å"It was enough to chill the blood and stiffen the hair of an ordinary man to hear him talk. Scarce a sentence escaped him but that was commenced or concluded by some horrid oathÃ¢â¬ 1. Douglas did not believe in arguments against slavery, supposing that common sense and moral values were higher than any religion. Always loyal to this broad notion of what is real, Douglass tends to seek a mode of radicalizing viewing. In 1872, Frederick Douglass became the Vice President of the United States and was the first African-American who had occupied this high position. For both men, escape becomes a symbol of future and hopes. Franklin and Douglass paved the way in accordance with life expectations and aims coined by hardship and necessity to survive. Their style encompassed a respect for human dignity transcending the limitations of color, a defense of the rights of the press and of freedom of speech and conscience, a concern for the liberty of every man to worship God in his own way, a regard for education and learning and for arts and letters, a sincere belief in equality of opportunity and condition that expressed itself in a concern to prevent excessive wealth and extreme poverty, and a passionate belief in the future greatness of America. 1. Douglass, F. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. 1997. http://sunsite. berkeley. edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/ Works Cited 1. Douglass, F. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. 1997. 30 April 2007 http://sunsite. berkeley. edu/Literature/Douglass/Autobiography/ 2. Franklin, B. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (with Introduction and Notes). Macmillan, 1914. 3. Lampe, G. P. Frederick Douglass: FreedomÃ¢â¬â¢s Voice, 1818-1845. Michigan State University Press, 1998. 4. Shenk, Joshua Wolf. The Myth of Lincoln, Reconstructed. The American Prospect. 12, February 26, 2001, p. 36.
Friday, August 30, 2019
The concept of relative isolation when talking about the African continent is determined by the cultures and the way the people lived in this time. Relative isolation played a major role in the diversity of the cultures on the African continent. When certain things went wrong in these societies, they had to adapt and change what they were doing to make it work and not get killed off or wiped out as a whole. As said in our lecture, people create labor, which creates surplus. Then when there is surplus (food) in the society, then this creates specialists.All of these things occur when things are going well for the people. But this was not always the case. This relative isolation also caused many problems for these societies and civilizations. When these people were isolated as they were, it makes it very difficult for them to escape things that happened at these times like climate change and many diseases, such as Malaria and malnutrition. This occurred on both a macro and micro level. On a micro level of relative isolation, such as smaller civilizations, problems such as disease and malnutrition were reoccurring issues.But relative isolation was not always a bad thing for these smaller civilizations and societies. It helped them become stationary with a certain group of people that they would eventually build cultures around consisting of customs and laws, as stated in the lecture. The more people and labor they had, the more food they had. This seems like a good plan in theory, but when a severe climate change occurs and they lose crops, or a disease comes through and kills half of their civilization, it is very difficult for them to escape these deadly problems and thrive as a whole.When they are all isolated in a small area, it is virtually impossible to prevent things like that from happening. It is also very difficult when these things occur, and the people left have to migrate as a whole. For example, as stated in Civilizations of Black Africa, Ã¢â¬Å"It h as very often happened in Africa that a society migrates, and moves, for example from the forest to the savanna. Ã¢â¬ It happened often to these societies and sometimes they were not able to thrive in the new environment like they once were. On a macro level of relative isolation, the African continent is isolated geographically and because of its climate.The seas and deserts around them did not allow them to expand and learn the ways of other thriving cultures and societies. The climate also added to the isolation because of the heavy rainfall. Many places were not suited for the crops they needed. More and more people were coming about, and not enough food was being made. These factors, as well as diseases made the African continent relatively isolated. Diseases were frequent, food was scarce at times, and the climate was incredibly hard to deal with when it came to trying to provide for your civilization.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Muscle movement - Essay Example ment to the muscles and many sets of muscles in the body work together in conjunction with each other in the form of various types of levers to bring about movement as a whole process. The typical skeletal muscle consists of three parts: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s origin from a bone where it is attached to a large area, its main body of muscular tissue and the insertion at the other end which is in the form of a glistening white tendon. The body of the muscle is made up of hundreds of cylindrical fibers which usually run all the way from the origin to the insertion. These cylindrical fibers are composed of an array of myofibrils which are a specialized category of animal cells. Each muscle fiber develops from the fusion of many cells called myoblasts. Muscles contract by the action of Acetyl choline, a neurotransmitter secreted through the nerves which brings about a change in the action potential at the neuromuscular synapse leading to binding of actin and myosin molecules and bringing about contraction. Antagonistic Muscles: For every group of muscles that move a specific portion of the body, there is an opposite group of muscles which brings about the opposite movement. Such pairs of muscles are called antagonistic muscles. The main pairs of antagonistic muscles and their respective movements are explained below: 1. Biceps-Triceps: The upper end of the biceps or its origin is at the scapula and its other end or insertion is on the radius bone of the forearm. Contraction of biceps brings about flexion or rising of the forearm and is called a flexor muscle. The antagonistic triceps relaxes at this time. The triceps is located behind the upper arm and its origin is at the scapula as well as the Humerus bone in the upper arm and the point of insertion is at the Olecranon process of the ulna. Its contraction brings about straightening of the arm and hence it is known as an extensor muscle. 2. Anterior tibialis and gastrocnemius muscles: This pair is located in the lower leg. When a
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Ethics, Innovation and Technology - Essay Example This has led to banning of deep oil drilling and thus created a heated debate on whether to permit or ban deep oil exploration. Ethical issues have been raised on deep oil drilling. Deep Oil Drilling The constant and ever increasing need for fossil fuels (particularly gas and oil) has pushed exploration and drilling industry to drill in very (ultra) deep waters (more than 2,000 meters water depth) with the wells being drilled to depths more than 7,500 meters. These forms of wells are very costly to drill and complete with expenses up to approximately 100 million United States dollars. According to the Energy Information Administration, the world needs for energy are increasing at an estimated rate of 1.5 to 2.0 percent per year. The United States National Energy Council report predicts that, by the year 2030, the energy demand for gas and oil will increase by 50 to 60 percent. The current total estimated oil stands at 1,258 trillion barrels and with the present oil consumption at 86 million barrels of oil per day, the hydrocarbons in place are estimated to be there in the next 42 years (Kelessidis 2009, p220). Ethical Issues Surrounding Deep Oil Drilling Ethical concerns are usually raised after a tragic accident. This was certainly true in the case of the 2010 deepwater drilling spill in the Gulf and other countless oil spills documented throughout the universe in the last century. It was only after the engineers were confronted with the graphic, photographic imagery of numerous oil soaked marine life and birds, and heard the testimonies of the Gulf coast residents (whose culture was adversely threatened) that they began to focus their attention as a society on the imminent disaster. As a profession, engineers seem reluctant to deal with the ethical issues involved. The rate at which the new technologies are converging and emerging and the damage caused by these accidents (like the Deepwater Horizon oil spill) on the reputation and the integrity of the profess ion, it seems imperative that the profession adapts a new, comprehensive ethical approach. The approach to be adapted has to be capable of dealing with the technical issues involved and the social and environmental implications (Catalano 2011, p1). On 20 April 2010, a number of explosions cut across the giant oil-drilling rig (the Deepwater Horizon) situated in the Gulf of Mexico, 48 miles from the shore. From the blast, 114 workers survived, and 11 others were never found. The rig collapsed and sunk two days after burning at the sea, destroying the steel piping and opening an oil volcano that released into the Gulf approximately 200 million gallons of crude oil. Deep-ocean, wetlands, beaches, and coastal waters were devastated by the spillage of the crude oil. Wildlife habitat and wildlife from Texas to the Florida Keys were adversely threatened. Countless families and individuals who rely on the Gulf waters for their way of life and their jobs were devastated emotionally and econo mically. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster has raised many ethical issues on the engineering profession (Catalano 2011, p1). These issues include; what exactly occurred, the role played by the engineering profession in regard to the disaster, how such disasters can be prevented in the future, ethical responsibilities, in events like the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and if the codes of conduct developed by the engineers are adequate (Catalano 2011, p2). Impact of Deep Oil Drilling The Deepwater Hor
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Communication and Culture - Essay Example Based on the source, culture is ordinary. This means that it is commonly performed. Every member of the society is participating in different ways and contributing to culture. Every activity then can be considered as part of the culture since it can be related to the social group to which a person or a group of person belongs. Basically, culture can be considered as a way of life since it describes the identity, visions, history and future of a community. In addition, culture can also be perceived in the form of different expressions such as arts, music, food culture, technology and other forms of knowledge and institutions (Williams). By being ordinary, it can be considered that culture is two-fold in terms of definition and application. One facet of culture is the identity pertained and projected by the whole community. For example India is known for the caste system, China for the practice of socialized industries and Japan for technological principles and prowess. If the said countries are critically analyzed on the basis of being in Asia, it can be roughly generalized that Asian culture is based on creativity and high level of diversity on the basis of the fact that the culture and identity of each nation is very distinct from the adjacent countries. Within each nation, any member of the population also has a distinct view and contribution to culture through their personal way of life. They communicate and survive through the application of tried and tested principles as well as trying new ideas and knowledge for future guidance and reference. Through the two-fold point of view regarding culture, it can then be applicable in terms of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s own attitudes, objective and behavior and also the traditions and practices of the community where the person belongs. One of the important features of the culture and society is the political economy which can be defined on the basis of the two roots of the
Monday, August 26, 2019
Reflective Report - Essay Example Furthermore, members have different experiences and each has a preferable way to research for the required information. Therefore, we all decided to choose an area in which one would prefer to focus on at the beginning. This was also informed by the limited amount of time available. Even thought the group met every week, more work was done during our private times. On the other hand, the group meetings were useful as we all used this time to share the researched information and track what areas needed to be looked into with more detail. Also, with todayÃ¢â¬â¢s technological advancement, we were all able to contact each other through mobile phones or email so as to share the findings thus far and seek for assistance from one another. The business plan consists of three parts. One of them is the market environment, which includes external and internal analysis as well as the strategic fit of the corporation. The main advantage of researching the current external and internal situations is the ability to identify the threats and opportunities for marketing purposes (Baines & Fill 2011) (see Figure 1). In our case, the environmental scanning was essential to understand why the company chose the specific strategies it did. For example, the company decided to create the focused shapes UK music (MixtapeMadness 2014). In addition, according to Mintel (2014), technological evolution changed consumer purchasing behaviour with a majority purchasing music products online nowadays. Therefore, in order to match consumer needs, the online platform was created for music downloads. Moreover, the Ã¢â¬Å"PESTÃ¢â¬ analysis was highly useful to track the environment that the company operates in (Mullins 2013). For example, economical factors such as low income among young consumers have influenced the company to create a free downloading website. The business plan also contained the marketing plan, which
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Evaluation of the Software Project (Travel App) - Research Paper Example From the software application Travel App., usability of the system has been considered and met in the design of the application. It is very easy to learn and understand as the number of buttons used has been minimized completely. Where fewer buttons are used, the user of the system has time to glance at them through at once to get the intended button with ease. The way the buttons have been labeled is another aspect that makes the application easy to learn and use as the instructions to be input are clear and precise. Even a naÃ ¯ve user can confidently use the system without any form of problem. It has been designed using the user-centered design as the clarity of the buttons dictates. A good designed user interface facilitates completion of tasks by users of the system without requiring them to pay more attention to the system. The manner in which a good interface is designed should facilitate its usability. This is achieved through balancing of the visual components and the techn ical functionality of the system when designing it, as it ensures development of usable, operational systems that are adaptable to changing user needs. It can therefore be concluded that the Travel Application has been designed in a usable manner as it meets most of these requirements in the way it has been designed and developed.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Law of contract - Essay Example However, a counter offer has also been made under which the BD has actually asked Natalie to keep the offer open and if she does, she will get 12 tall glasses also. Considering the above situation, it may be important to ascertain whether Natalie has accepted the offer made by BD. Under this situation, it is important to ascertain the acceptance of the offer and its communication in order to make a formal contract. The offer has been accepted by BD on 18th however, it reached to Natalie on 21st however, under contract law an offer is accepted once the letter of acceptance has been posted if postal acceptance is made. In Adams V Lindsell1 and Henthorn v Fraser2, court decided that an acceptance is complete as soon as the acceptance is posted. Under these conditions Natalie will have to perform her part of the contract and purchase the bottles of Lemonade according to the offer made by her. 2(B) One of the key issues in this case is to decide whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s an invitation to treat or an offer to the world which Cruisey Liners plc has made. Under the case law, the advertisement made by the companies is generally considered as an invitation to treat and as such they are not liable to contract on the terms mentioned in the advertisement. An invitation to treat is therefore considered as a willingness of the individuals to negotiate and enter into contract. It is also important to note that in order to become a binding contract, it is critical that the acceptance must be definite in nature. The lack of this therefore may not render a contract binding on other party. (Stone and Cunnington) It is however, important to make a distinction between the invitation to treat and an offer to the world. Under unilateral contract, one party to the contract makes a promise for a reward on the performance of certain act. When an offer is made to the world, its acceptance only occurs when the complete performance of the act is done. (Elliot and Quinn). Considering this, the cas e of Caroline may not require damages for the firm because she has not performed the act. However, in case of Stephen Spider, the same may not be the case as the acceptance of the offer has been made through the performance of the act. It also however, has to be decided as to whether the revocation of offer should be communicated through same channels or not. As a general rule however, the revocation of the offer has to be properly communicated through the same channels. Q#2 The doctrine of privity under the contract law outlines that the rights and obligations arising under the contract can only be imposed on the persons who are party to the contract. As such rights and obligations cannot be enforced on others who are explicitly or implicitly not part of the contract. (McKendrick) The doctrine of privity therefore is also critical under the current environment also as the same help to identify the rights and obligations of third parties under the contract. There are wide range of l aws which are covered under the doctrine of Privity and are decided till today according to this doctrine. Issues such as trusts, estates, collaterals etc are still governed by the doctrine of pri
Friday, August 23, 2019
THE ENGLISH SYSTEM OF EDUCATION AND SKILLS - Essay Example ligation to make contributions to the cost of their education once they are in workÃ¢â¬ ¦ The Inquiry favours a combination of student tuition fees (on a loan basis) and the continuation of means-tested maintenance grants and student loans as the best way to seek contributions from higher income families and graduates in workÃ¢â¬ ¦ to make a flat rate contribution of around 25 per cent of the average cost of higher education tuition, through an income-based mechanism." (Dearing) The removal of up-front fees and the limited return of grants are insufficient to offset the experience of student debt, especially by low-income families. Many poor families are positively deterred from entering HE due to the fees and concern of getting into debt. Ã¢â¬Å"We have neither the quantity nor the quality of necessary vocational skillsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Our skills base compares poorly and, critically, all of our comparators are improving. Being world class is a moving target.Ã¢â¬ (Leitch) Many of the initiatives other than those dealing with funding are positive for the UK higher education system. The thorny issue remains funding. The Leitch review published in 2006 also makes some suitable recommendations for the present-day UK HE system. These were made in response to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s concern in 2004 to engender greater skills in adults due to demographic changes in the workplace. 1. Students from poorer backgrounds would not be at a disadvantage, otherwise they may not be have the means to acquire HE at all, or they may feel obliged to opt for cheaper degree courses instead of selecting on the basis of academic considerations. High student fees are the single biggest obstacles to continuing their studies into higher education. 2. Enabling contributions by students should only be directed at students who are able to afford to pay for their own studies. Even then, students should only be expected to pay if and when they have obtained employment, and earning more than a minimum amount of
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Marketing home work - Essay Example In a highly competitive environment of cut throat business, creating and keeping customers therefore becomes vital ingredient of the market strategy of the firms. Saxonville Sausages is a prime example of how brand strategies were used to position their product in the market. They had targeted family and homemakers who relished home cooked food. The advertisements showed women using Saxonville sausages to make different dishes and enjoying it with family. Thus it was able to create a niche market position. Through right positioning, it was able to revive its declining profits (Mullins & Walker, 2009). Mountain Man brewery case, on the other hand emphasizes the need for new product to meet the challenges of time. Mountain Man is established brand of lager with regional specialty that primarily caters to the niche market of coal miners. Its brand equity is associated with long history of coal mining and has a loyal customer base which now is elderly populace. The new light beer would meet the tastes of young generation but fears that it could threaten its brand equity. But this is a risk which the firm must take to maintain its competitive advantage in the industry. Market research is intrinsic part of business strategy that is used to identify and analyze changing customersÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements which the firms meet through new product development or value addition (Vandermerwe, 2004; McKenna, 1991). The buying behavior and surveys are important tools for qualitative and quantitative analysis that help deintify the changing trend of the consumers. For example, qualitative study would show that coke is a favorite drink but diet coke is preferred more because of its low calorie. On the other hand, quantitative research would indicate that coke is more popular than Pepsi. Various firms like Redbull, Reebok, Nike have used market research to identify their requirement that was used for new product
PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces Essay Michael E Porter developed the PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces analysis in 1979 which serves as a framework for industry analysis and business strategy development. Its five forces determine the competitive intensity and therefore attractiveness of a market. Attractiveness in this context refers to the overall industry profitability. Three of Porters five forces refer to competition from external sources. The remainder are internal threats. It is useful to use Porters five forces in conjunction with SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats). Porter referred to these forces as the micro environment. They consist of those forces close to a company that affect its ability to serve its customers and make a profit. The stronger the forces, the less profit they will make and vice-versa. A change in any of the forces normally, requires a business unit to re-assess the marketplace given the overall change in industry information. The overall industry attractiveness does not imply that every firm in the industry will return the same profitability. Porters five forces include three forces from horizontal competition: threat of substitute products, the threat of established rivals, and the threat of new entrants; and two forces from vertical competition: the bargaining power of suppliers and the bargaining power of customers. The threat of the entry of new competitors The treat of new entrants depend on the ease with which they can enter the market. Markets with high profits will attracts new firms. The major barriers are: * Need for economies of scale * High entry costs * Lack of distribution channels * Government policies such as selective subsidies * Cost advantages of existing firms such as access to raw materials, know how * Strong product- loyal customers The intensity of competitive rivalry Strong rivalry will reduce profits. This occurs when: * Many firms, none dominant * Slow market growth * Fixed costs are high * High exit costs * Similar products In high competitive markets, threat of new entrants is high.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Explicit Sexualization Of Both Men And Women Media Essay It is quite evident that gender, sexuality and advertising are all directly linked with one another.7 Marketing minds have finally realized that sex sells. Advertisements in mainstream magazines have increasingly relied on explicit sexualization of both men and women to sell products. Ads sell a great deal more than products. Ã They sell values, images, and concepts of success of worth, love and sexuality, popularity, and normalcy. Ã They tell us who we are and who we should be. Ã Sometimes they sell addictionsThey provide impossible body images for women to strive towards, and sadly, many women do The female body is repeatedly objectified in advertising, and whenever a human is turned into a thing, violence is going to follow. Ã Rapes and beatings often result from the dehumanization of women Slide 2 In this advertisement for Calvin Klein Jeans, the female model is depicted lying on vacant beach. This type of advertisement creates many troubled stereotypes and ideologies for our modern day society. This image can be critically evaluated using Goffmans (1979) model of gender advertising. Goffman claims that image advertisements often place women in subordinate positions.Ã He also discusses a set of codes called, ritualization of subordination.Ã This concept addresses the physical position of a woman in an advertisement. Women are often seen on their side or lying on their back.Ã What is Calvin Klein selling in this advertisement? This is a clavin klein jeans addÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ It conveys a lot of message to the consumersÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. The woman is lying on her back. All you need is the touch that transforms the gender oppressive product into a gender celebratory productÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ You can see the main focus in this add is Brad Pitt and not the watchÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ As he is wearing the watch his fans would think that he wears such kind of watches which is not true because he is just advertising for it and this causes people to buy this watch. Its like cheating on the people and the fans and misleading the consumers. Play station 2 What better way to sell one of the hottest video game machines around than sex?http://www.americaninventorspot.com/files/images/Play_Station_Two_Sexy_Woman.jpg There is no image of PS2 ( the good which they are trying to sell ). The female in the picture is source of attraction to the consumer to buy this product. The product is a gaming console mainly for the young people who can easily be distracted through such ads. Slide 3 Figures 1 and 2 use the same approach of photographic imagery of the sea and shore, the colours blue and white associate with water hence the fragrance name Cool Water and the text for the advert. Figure 1 shows an attractive, confident female model passive on the shore resting her head on a rock and gazing at the reader. Figure 2 shows a muscular male model in water, who is active (splashing water) and seems he has just jumped out of the water. Although the adverts appear to be similar on the surface, the adverts have been gendered to send a clear message to the desired reader. The message from Cool Water for Women clearly states that as a woman, this product will make you look and feel fresh, cool, relaxed and confident, so confident that you do not need to wear anything else but the fragrance. This plays on the ideology that most women do not have the self confidence to show their body but using this product will restore that confidence. The Cool Water for Men implies that not only will the product make you as a man, feel cool and fresh, but it will give you full of energy so that you ready for any action. This aggressive targeting has mainly had an impact on women more than men as they have become extremely self conscious, and research proves that women spend more money on looking good than men. Billions of Pounds are circulated each year in the beauty industry alone. Men dream of being James Bond or aspire to his charisma, and those who see him as a role model will copy his image. Advertisers have emphasised that Omega is James Bonds choice of wrist watch brand, and the advert states that Omega is the sign of excellence; connotating that James Bond only wears the best and so should you. It plays on mens desire of becoming a hero as we see a scene from a Bond film in the background explosion in the air. The message is very clear; men who wear the watch can relate to James Bond, become suave, sophisticated, and successful. In contrast, figure 4 demonstrates that women are more laid back, and prefer indoor events. The indoor dÃ ©cor in the background resembles a sophisticated, upper class restaurant. The advert emphasises that this gold, slim Omega watch, is Cindy Crawfords choice. She is wearing a red dress associated with the lady in red (attractive). Her watch is worn as part of her outfit, almost as if it is gold jewellery. The message conveyed here is as if Cindy is speaking out to the reader saying, look at what Im wearing. She appears to be wealthy and attractive and is urging women that it is a must have piece of jewellery that will make you look like a million dollars. It is clear from the above examples that men and women are targeted according to their social beliefs and attitudes towards their self perception brought on by advertisers and society, enforcing them to adopt certain buying behaviours to influence purchasing decisions. These certain methods have had negative impact on women than men as we are aware that women appear more emotional and unconfident in contrast to men. Women are increasingly concerned with their physical appearance due to the pressure of looking good by society. Klein is not alone in his use of controversial images in advertising. After all, the whole point of advertising has always been to attract attention, and fashion advertising is notorious for its exploitative use of young men and women. But one senses that there is a new conservatism among consumers, who are fed up with X-rated images hawking everything from beer to video games. In continuing to push the envelope, designers like Klein may find that they have pushed the patience of their consumers too far. A possible backlash to this campaign occurred in 1999, when Klein launched an ad campaign for his childrens underwear line. The campaign involved three different photos, two depicting two little boys playing on a sofa and clad only in CK underpants and the third depicting two little girls playing on a sofa and clad only in CK undergarments. These images appeared as full page ads in the New York Post and prominent magazines, and as a huge billboard in Manhattans Times Square. Due to public furore, these ads were pulled 24 hours later. A Calvin Klein spokesperson claimed that these ads were intended to capture the same warmth and spontaneity that you find in a family snapshot. The general public disagreed, with numerous experts citing that these ads were pornographic because they featured high definition, sexualized images of young children. In many cases, those who were against the ads cited Kleins previous track record as sufficient proof that these images were exploitative. Chocolate man ad too sexy for Indian audience A deodorant advert that showed an apparently irresistible chocolate man being gnawed on by scantily clad women has been banned in India. An advertising executive in the country explains why it was so offensive. The Indian blogosphere is having a tantrum over the decision to withdraw a commercial for Axe Dark Temptation deodorants for men, which are flavoured with a hint of chocolate. Created by Argentinean advertisers and aired on Indian television, the ad shows crowds of attractive young women nibbling and licking at a young man wearing the deodorant. Although parts of the clip had already been censored to appease the regional audience, the Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI) received so many complaints about the ad that they decided to remove it. It follows a collection of commercials flaunting, amongst other things, sexy underwear and flavoured condoms, which have been taken off air or censored for being indecent, vulgar and repulsive. Slide 4 This slide includes the knowledge issue. Through these real life examples we came up with knowledge issue which says To what extent is the use of sexuality in advertisements ethical? There are different opinions of people and different ways of knowing. Reason Emotion Perception Language Reason Money Better profits and sales Brand name To attract consumers More knowledge issues What responsibility, if any, does a company have for honestly educating the consumer about its product? Should advertisers be allowed to suggest that a product will make a person more sexy/interesting/beautiful/successful/etc? Is it ethical to use celebrities to sell products they probably dont even use themselves? Is it the buyers responsibility to be aware of these strategies and not allow them to manipulate their emotions? Language Communicating a message Cause Influence purchasing behavior thought patterns Effect Persuasive Informative Enabler Language is the key criteria for effectiveness of these three aspects. Message must be communicated in a language which is comfortable to the audience and influence them in a positive manner. At the same time it will be more effective if the communication is persuasive and informative. Language to be used in an advertisement should be determined based on the product and the user groupÃ for the product. For instance, advertisement for a luxury good should be publicized in English whereas same for a necessity is preferred to be done in local language for greater communicability and mass reach. Two Indian Americans, Aradhna Krishna and Rohini Ahluwalia of University of Michigan and Minnesota, respectively, examined the role of language in advertising in India. Their results indicate that multinationals marketing products, among bilingual populations, should pay special attention to language. They determined how the language hits viewers mind in relation to a product category. This happens as different products have different user groups. They found that participants perceptions of advertisements changes significantly when different languages are used.Ã While Hindi is associated with belongingness (close, personal, friendly, family), English is associated with sophistication (global, cosmopolitan, urban, upper class), they wrote. They found that whereas detergents can be advertised effectively in Hindi, English is preferred for Luxury items like chocolates. Airtel, Coca Cola, Fevicol are some of the brands which advertise in local language in two and three tier cities. But as far as Cadbury is concerned, they prefer Hindi or mixed language. The researchers also found that people responds favorably to mixed-language advertising. A classic example for mixed-language advertisement can be that of Frooti the first tetra pack fruit juice of India by Parle Agro Foods. They use the jingle Mango frooti, fresh-n-juicy with their Hindi advertisement effectively. Whereas use of Bengali language by all major advertisers for their products during Durga Pooja in Kolkata (rather whole Bengal) can be an example for use of local language to influence masses. History of Women in Television Advertisements (AOK) There are many different stereotypes of women in advertising. Throughout history there have been many studies that proved women were mainly portrayed on television advertisements as housewives or occupations that are subservient to men. Studies also show the disproportional ratio of women to men in TV advertisements. In the 70s, it was reported that women were found on camera only 21 % of the time. Allan and Coltrane conducted a study that showed inversely, in the 80s female appearance on TV advertisement were 5.8% less compared to the 50s! (Pierce, 1999) In 1996, the Kaiser Family Foundation and Children Now calculated that women were on camera 42 percent of the time. Though this was an increase percentage wise from previous decades, gender inequalities still are rampant. This fact is proved a study conducted by Professors Daniel J. Bretl and Joanne Cantor of the University of Wisconsin (1995) which found that 90% of voice-overs used in advertisements were male, despite some of the products were aimed predominantly to females. Effects of Advertising on Women Advertising has many effects on society as a whole. As a result of not being in as many commercials, at very young ages boys and girls conclude that girls are valued less than boys. The commercials that females are mostly in are ones that portray them as them and thin and beautiful while some how also being subservient to men. The negative effects of advertising on women fall into a huge range of problems. The most common would affect be the constant increase of womens struggles with dieting and eating disorders. As, Wilson and Blackhurst point out, Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦fifty-six percent of all women are on diets (Pipher, 1995) Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦and eighty percent of girls have dieted by the time they reach eighteen (Brown, 1993). Unfortunately as girls were raised, they were always taught to be submissive and dainty. It almost seemed like they are told their opinions dont matter and that they should just sit there look pretty or be fragile like glass dolls. Many ads use this to their advanta ge. They make girls think that the only thing they should do is work on their appearance, because their opinions dont matter. This results in several girls falling into depression or developing eating disorders. The inner struggles of keeping the pain in cause some girls to want to commit suicide before wanting to be fat. A Charlotte, N.C. real estate firm says business is booming, thanks to their sexy new marketing plan that involves hiring models to pose in listings photos of luxury homes. During the boom years of 2006 and 2007, Peters and Associates Real Estate was the No.1 seller of high-end homes in the Charlotte region. Then the market crashed and real estate sales dried up for most of 2008 and 2009. Peters and Associates owners Nick and Miriam Peters then decided to spice up their marketing and have been having tremendous success ever since. The couple creates an image by spending thousands of dollars on clothing and cars; and they photograph their listings with sexy, attractive people. Peters caters to high-profile and high-net-worth individuals, such as professional athletes, coaches, entertainers, executives and other VIPs. These clients are looking for a lifestyle and amenities much different from the average homebuyer. The buying experience for Peters clients begins with being picked up at the airport in an exotic car and then whisked to a luxurious spa for a relaxing day of pampering, or to a private club for a round of golf. Once they are totally refreshed, they are ready to tour homes. How effective is the campaign? Peters did a controlled online test, with one listing showing the typical real estate pictures. Visitors to that listing stayed an average of 40 to 60 seconds. Visitors to the listing with lifestyle photos stayed an average of 4 to 6 minutes. Statistics suggest that the more time a potential buyer spends looking at a listing, the more likely they are to request a showing. Peters listings used to get three to four clicks a week, and now they get 10 to 20 a day.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Motivation In A Business Start Up Business Essay There are misconceptions on the meaning of motivation and the ways in which it influences organisations if at all. Motivation can be seen as the drive an individual has to achieve a set goal; however Laurie J. Mullins (2005) describes motivation as the direction and persistence of action. There has been a wide range of research concerning the topic of motivation; however there are still arguments on the extent to which it has an influence on existing businesses and if so how these businesses can use it to their advantage. I am quite intrigued by the idea of motivation, as my main aim at present is to become a Financial Manager. As a result of this main aim I have decided to broaden the ideas I have about individuals thinking and the factors that increase their performance during the course of this assignment for future use. Research and Observation Using books and online case studies I have found that it could be argued that motivation is quite a broad topic as there are many aspects to it; however I find that motivation is as simple as an individuals desire to achieve. Business analysts like Mullins (2007:251) have identified that motivation is not only brought about by the individual but also by the environment in which they are working in. Laurie J Mullins (2005) seems to believe that performance = function (ability * motivation) which seems to suggest that an individuals motivation to achieve is a factor of their performance (for example how well they get the job done). This then brings about the main question, how essential is motivation in a business setup? How can motivation be practised in a given business set up? The Volvo case study (Robbins, Judge, Campbell 2010); Volvo being a car manufacturing business, its goal was to motivate its employees to produce these quality cars which would in turn maximise its profits. In order to motivate its employees it decided to practice the strategies of a self-managed team, where the team members were responsible for producing the cars and had a supervisor to report to if any problems were to occur. Volvo genuinely believed that this autonomy would motivate employees to would harder, however it all went pear shaped as it turned out that the meetings with supervisors were now get-togethers where the team members criticised each others performances to the supervisor. Having observed this strategy we find that this was not a form of motivation, as the individuals felt they had to work in order to reduce complaints about them to the team supervisors, not because they genuinely wanted to perform better. Many companies like Volvo set out to motivate their emplo yees in various ways (such as the self-managed team), but I believe that the business should then be aware and monitor their strategies to make sure they go according to their plans. The way I see it is that the situation with Volvo may be seen as an ethical issue as the employee stress could have resulted due to the fact that they always had to watch their backs when working (due to the fact that they may have felt that their jobs were not secure). This thereby demonstrates that businesses have identified that their employees need to be motivated in order to perform on the job. This self-management strategy turned out to be a great strategy for the business product line, but the real question is was this strategy an incentive? Linstead, Fullop and Lilly (2004) point out McKenna (1999: 301) states that the topic of motivation has lost its relevance and needs to be replaced with concepts such as sense making, identity and diversity. He seems to believe that motivation is brought about by the individual; organisation intervention suggests that the organisations are influencing or manipulating the situation as we have identified with the Volvo case study. McKenna (1999)s theory being quite an interesting observation one is able to visualise what he was trying to put across (Volvo case study), but does this then mean that motivation can only be brought about by the individual, with it being essential to businesses? There are other researchers such as Roy Jacques (1996:160-1) who believe that, there are categories of workers who do not need motivation, who are more career and professionally oriented. However observing ourselves we find that each individual, not looking at whether they are career oriented or not, has days when they feel down or times when they do not feel like performing. There then has to be an incentive to encourage them to carry out their daily routines, such money or the need to socialise which we know as motivation incentives. Having acknowledged this observation, if an individual needs motivation to carry out their daily routines then we are reluctant to believe that (all the more) they will need them in order to perform at a high standard for the business to achieve its goals. Marchese (2003) As identified above, there are quite a number of theories different researchers have come up with, which now shape the way in which many individuals perceive motivation. All the theories above, in one way or another are stating that individuals need to be motivated in order to perform, thereby implying that the more motivated an individual is the higher their performance level will be. One of the well-known theories of motivation being Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs, Maslows theory argues that individuals have a hierarchy of needs, that motivation is attained by satisfying higher order needs, as identified below; Conclusion Siemens is an organisation that has based its motivational theories for employees on Maslows Hierarchy of needs. This was a result of the organisation acknowledging that not only do production levels increase when its employees are motivated but other factors too, such as the fact that employees who are motivated feel that their work is valued, which inspires them to take pride in the tasks they perform. Ultimately Siemens has identified that with as a set of demotivated staff; the organisation loses out on benefitting from factors that revolve around production maximisation. An example is that if staff do not feel valued (an incentive to motivation) then the organisation is more likely to suffer from staff absences or high staff turnover as no individual desires to be in an environment where they feel they are not required. This then brings the topic back to product/profit maximisation; the more absent the employees are the less the organisation will produce and the less profit the organisation will make. The higher the employee turnover (job satisfaction is low) a business has the more money it has to spend on recruitment which means the more the business loses money. This altogether brings down the level of efficiency the production level of the business is. Here we have only identified one aspect in which motivation increases performance, there are many more such as the fact that motivated individuals are more willing to work together as they feel they are all working towards the same goal, self-achievement. This is implying that the more employees feel that their needs are being met, the more they are willing to achieve the business needs, thereby stating that motivating employees in turn motivates the business. Work Cited Marchese M.C., 2003. Phycology applied to work; Concept Charts for Study and Review for Muchinskys, 12;24 Linstead S, Fulop L, Lilley S, 2004. Management and Organisation; a critical text, 9; 281-282 Robbins S.P., Judge T.A., Campbell T.T., 2010. Organisational Behaviour, 6;140-195 Mullins L.J., 2005, 2007. Management and Organisational Behaviour, 4; 471-503, 7;250-285 Mckenna E 1994. Business Psychology Organisation Behaviour; a student handbook, 2;63-107 The Siemens Case Study- http://www.thetimes100.co.uk/case-studymotivation-within-a-creative-environment89-405-2.php#ixzz13WeKNXsZ
Monday, August 19, 2019
My Spirit Is Christian, My Logic is Not If I assume God exists, I must also assume the existence of extraterrestrials, unicorns, dragons, and so on. It is a cold, lightless and bitter feeling to think that death is the very end. Be that as it may, this is the feeling that I struggle with almost everyday of my life. I wish I could honestly with all my heart say that God does exist, but I cannot. I long for answers to my nightly prayers, but there never are any. I yearn for a peace within my spiritual being that I can never find. For numerous months I have been going to the "Christian Bible" for answers. The truth is, the more I peruse the Bible, the more I accept it. However, I still question the many contradictions between the Old and the New Testaments and at times find its writing deceptive and improbable. Do I have no faith, or have I just not been conditioned? I was not brought up in a religious family. I never attended church, never prayed, and never talked about the mere existence of God. My claim is that if one man was able to Nazify a whole country, just imagine how parents can manipulate their child's actions, understand ing, and, most easily, their beliefs. I reach out to God because there is something within me that cries out for satisfaction, for hope, something only God can fulfill. However, it is the incomprehensible stories in the Bible and the practices of religion that keep me away from spiritual completion. What inspired me to even open the Bible were the words of a close friend who two years ago told me, " The Bible might be a letter your father has written to you. Don't you think you ought to at least read it?" However, after having looked through the Bible, I have found a curious piece of prejudice in my heart against God's words that needs an explanation. I have a hard time believing a superior and loving power exists above us when there is so much atrociousness in this world. Bad things happen to good people: an accident they couldn't prevent, an illness they couldn't avoid, a misfortune they didn't foresee. I do not believe that is God; I believe that's life. Some are poor, some are rich, some are white, some are black, and some live great lives, and others come to the point of suicide.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Macbeth: Contrasts of Nature Georganne Hampton In the play, Macbeth, Shakespeare uses contrasts of nature in various ways. He consistently shows us that Macbeth and his wife's actions go against nature. The first lines of the play are a condensed version of the unnaturalness of things to come. "In thunder, lightning or in rain?" ( I, i, 2). In nature, thunder, lightening and rain occur together, but Shakespeare's use of the word "or" infers the unnatural occurrence of one without the others. "When battles lost and won" ( I, i, 4), is also not a natural occurrence. Battles are either lost or won. Shakespeare is implying the future opposites of nature in the forthcoming play. "Fair is foul, and foul is fair" (I, i, 11), further shows the use of inversions and paradoxs in nature that Shakespeare will use throughout the play. One of the main controversies of nature for the reader is that in spite of Macbeth's evil deeds, we still find him likeable. We see him in the same way that the King does when he welcomes him by saying, "O valiant cousin! Worthy gentleman" (I, ii, 24). We perceive him as valiant, because he is afraid of sacrificing his humanity. "My thought, whose murder yet is but fantasticle. / Shakes so my single state of man that function / Is smothered in surmise and nothing is / But what is not" (I, iii, 139-41). Macbeth has doubts about the predictions of the witches. He knows that it could be a trick and his misgivings make him seem to be a better person. Another thing that makes Macbeth likeable to the reader is the contrast with his wife. It is clear from her beginning that she is evil. She has reservations about Macbeth not being evil enough. "Yet do I fear thy nature" (I, V, 14). She fears he is too good to do the kind of evil deeds that she is planning. After Macbeth murders the King, he realizes the extent of evil that he has committed, but also realizes that the deed is done and there is nothing that he can do to rectify it. "As they had seen me with these hangman's hands / List'ning their fear. I could not say Ã¢â¬ËAmen!' / When they did say Ã¢â¬ËGod bless us!'" (II, ii, 27-29). The fact that Macbeth is very troubled, and continues his tirade, "Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood / Clean from my hand? No, this my hand will rather / the multitudinous seas incarnadine, / Making the green one red" (II, ii, 59-62), evokes compassion for him from the Macbeth: Contrasts Of Nature :: essays research papers Macbeth: Contrasts of Nature Georganne Hampton In the play, Macbeth, Shakespeare uses contrasts of nature in various ways. He consistently shows us that Macbeth and his wife's actions go against nature. The first lines of the play are a condensed version of the unnaturalness of things to come. "In thunder, lightning or in rain?" ( I, i, 2). In nature, thunder, lightening and rain occur together, but Shakespeare's use of the word "or" infers the unnatural occurrence of one without the others. "When battles lost and won" ( I, i, 4), is also not a natural occurrence. Battles are either lost or won. Shakespeare is implying the future opposites of nature in the forthcoming play. "Fair is foul, and foul is fair" (I, i, 11), further shows the use of inversions and paradoxs in nature that Shakespeare will use throughout the play. One of the main controversies of nature for the reader is that in spite of Macbeth's evil deeds, we still find him likeable. We see him in the same way that the King does when he welcomes him by saying, "O valiant cousin! Worthy gentleman" (I, ii, 24). We perceive him as valiant, because he is afraid of sacrificing his humanity. "My thought, whose murder yet is but fantasticle. / Shakes so my single state of man that function / Is smothered in surmise and nothing is / But what is not" (I, iii, 139-41). Macbeth has doubts about the predictions of the witches. He knows that it could be a trick and his misgivings make him seem to be a better person. Another thing that makes Macbeth likeable to the reader is the contrast with his wife. It is clear from her beginning that she is evil. She has reservations about Macbeth not being evil enough. "Yet do I fear thy nature" (I, V, 14). She fears he is too good to do the kind of evil deeds that she is planning. After Macbeth murders the King, he realizes the extent of evil that he has committed, but also realizes that the deed is done and there is nothing that he can do to rectify it. "As they had seen me with these hangman's hands / List'ning their fear. I could not say Ã¢â¬ËAmen!' / When they did say Ã¢â¬ËGod bless us!'" (II, ii, 27-29). The fact that Macbeth is very troubled, and continues his tirade, "Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood / Clean from my hand? No, this my hand will rather / the multitudinous seas incarnadine, / Making the green one red" (II, ii, 59-62), evokes compassion for him from the
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Meaning of Professionalism and Why Healthcare Providers Are Held to Higher Standard of Accountability
Criminal Justice System Kimberly Cruse Kaplan University October 14, 2012 CJ150: Juvenile Delinquency The current juvenile justice system (JJS) has evolved over the past century with numerous differences that distinguish it from the criminal justice system (CJS). Juvenile justice proponents argued that the youth posses diminished responsibility as well as legal understanding. The earliest court started in Chicago, in 1899. A century later, there has been considerable debate on the goals as well as the legal procedures for handling juvenile offenders.The most intriguing question is whether to treat juvenile offenders differently than adult offenders. This debate draws numerous opinions from citizens, policy makers, and specialists (Edwards, 2008). Initially, the establishment of the JJS targeted individualized justice, and it focused on rehabilitation of youthful offenders. However, although there were other outstanding mitigations, the court superseded with its emphasis on care and r ehabilitation of the juvenile offenders.Consequently, the proponents upheld the youth responsible for their unlawful behavior. In addition, they asserted that society needed protection through an informal justice system (IJS). This would focus on the suitable treatment and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s interests. Moreover, this approach is still applicable and effective for numerous juvenile offenders whose crimes state offenses and property offenses to drug offenses. Sources have revealed that a number of states have adopted separate programs within the adult correctional centers.Florida and South Carolina are the two states that have established different facilities for housing juvenile inmates. The age range is the key determinant of which youth ought to be housed in such facilities. In the above-mentioned states, the two age ranges are between 18 and 21, or 18 and 25. I also support the idea of housing them in different facilities thus avoiding cases of mistreatment (Elrod & Ryder, 2011). C urrent sources have revealed a rise in the fraction of cases processed in the juvenile court system.For instance, the number of cases processed in such courts in 2005 was 1. 6 million. The research has shown that the drug law violation, public order offense, and property offense cases are among those dealt with in a juvenile court. The graphs show an increase, along with a decline in the number of cases directed to juvenile courts for processing (Elrod & Ryder, 2011). It is notable that, in each state, government has ensured the existence of a court to handle crimes committed by juvenile offenders.Judges who are responsible for handling this category of criminals must have specialized in juvenile, together with domestic relation issues. The state of Massachusetts has made some innovations through the formation of a statewide juvenile court, which lies under the trial court. It has its chief justice and many divisions across the state. I would also implement such an idea, as it would bring such services closer to the people (Elrod & Ryder, 2011). There are numerous reasons behind the transfer of juvenile offenders to adult courts.The magnitude of offenses committed by some of the juveniles, for instance, fails to offer them the merit endowed to juveniles whose cases are conducted in juvenile courts. The transfer of such youths is beneficial to themselves as they are in a position to learn about the seriousness of their mistakes, therefore, trying to avoid them since they become aware of the repercussions. Moreover, such an action is beneficial to the society; as these youths do not have the freedom to walk about freely in their communities.Finally, these transfers benefit the system, as it is intricate to handle some cases committed by juveniles, while in juvenile courts. In case of a transfer, youths become adults legally and face similar treatment to that for adults. After a careful examination of the reasons behind such transfers, I strongly support this pra ctice. Currently, three main mechanisms are applicable for transfer of a juvenile to an adult court. As depicted in this source, the first mechanism is the judicial waiver, which has been in application since ancient epochs. A number of elements distinguish it from other mechanisms.For instance, the examination of the likely reasons for the juvenile to have committed the crime is among the basic elements. Secondly, it becomes necessary to consider the threats of such a youth to the society (Elrod and Ryder, 2011). Moreover, it considers the system to which the juvenile court system can effectively handle such a case. In a scenario, whereby the case is so serious, a careful evaluation of how the adult court can handle such a case becomes a point of focus. The other mechanism known as the legislative waiver has been in use, in various states of America.This mechanism forms its decision on the age, along with the offense criterion of the juvenile. The third and final mechanism is the p rosecutorial waiver. This is different from the other two mechanisms as it permits a concurrent jurisdiction in the two dissimilar court systems. Similarly, both the age together with the offense criterion demand cautious considerations. A number of problems arise in case of transferring juveniles to an adult court for trial. The decision to transfer these youths can bring adverse consequences to the youths.Prosecution of these youths in open criminal courts exposes them to criminals known to have committed serious offenses than them. Eventually, they may resort into learning how to commit similar crimes. Additionally, erosion of their civil rights is a problem allied to such a transfer. In various scenarios, such a transfer fails to curb the increasing rate of recidivism, therefore, the deterioration of the security of communityÃ¢â¬â¢s security. It would be crucial to transfer only those cases that the juvenile court cannot address with efficacy.If I was a judge, the state would have to prove to me that the juvenile court would find it intricate to handle such a case, together with the effectiveness of the needed superior court (Elrod and Ryder, 2011). References Edwards, J. (2008). Introduction to the juvenile justice system. Raleigh, NC: lulu. com publishers Elrod, P. & Ryder. (2011). Juvenile justice: a social, historical, and legal perspective. Sunbury, MA: Jones &Bartlett learning publishers. Siegel, L. J. (2011). Juvenile delinquency: The core (4th ed. ). Mason: Cengage Learning/Wadsworth.
From a reading of Hardy’s short stories, discuss how Hardy brings out the aspects of Victorian society in ‘The Withered Arm’ and ‘The Son’s Veto’
A6. Thomas Hardy lived during the Victorian period and he loved from 1840-1928. He was a famous novelist and poet but his points were not liked by the people in the year of 1840. Thomas Hardy was known as a Novelist and his stories crossed the modern and Victorian age. Thomas Hardy also lived in the middle class family and was born in Dorset a tiny village in the south west of England. Also, he used the locality of Dorset in his stories. He was the person who felt men were bond servants of chance and that they played an important role on our lives. In both the short stories, Ã¢â¬ËThe Withered Arm' and Ã¢â¬ËThe Son's Veto', he used a lot of description which was one of the other reasons why he was so popular. This is because his innate gift of description expressed someone or something in the deepest form which could actually help the reader picture the person or something clearly. First of all in both the short stories, Ã¢â¬ËThe Withered Arm' and Ã¢â¬ËThe Son's Veto' we see clearly that marriages could only happen between two people of the same class and that it could only be between social equals and this is one of the aspects that society judged a person on. Also, in both the short stories written by Thomas Hardy the level of your class in society determined the respect one would get. In Ã¢â¬ËWithered Arm', the case was that Farmer Lodge was of a lower class, and when he came up in his class in society, he married Gertrude who too was of a high class and was a lady. Here, Farmer Lodge stepped out of his original class and wanted to be exactly look a person of a higher class which is why he left Rhoda Brook who was of the lower class, although she had given birth to a son, and so he decided to start his life as a gentleman. He had also married Gertrude because she was so beautiful, and this was another thing society looked on Ã¢â¬â the appearance of a person. This is why in the beginning Rhoda Brook sends her son to spy on Farmer Lodge's newly wedded wife which we soon come to recognise as Gertrude. Rhoda Brook thus this because she wants to know if the woman Farmer Lodge has married is good looking and well off which she presumed as the sole reason for leaving her. This is mainly because society's nature was that they graded people for the way they looked, and accordingly, respect would be given to that the person. This can be proven by the quote, Ã¢â¬ËAnd if she seems like a woman who has ever worked for a living, or one that has been always well of, and has never done anything, and shows marks of the lady on her, as I expect she do. Ã¢â¬Ë This quote is about Rhoda Brook who is keen to know if Farmer Lodge ha left her for the class distinction. Also in the Victorian society, men married woman who were extremely young which is what Farmer Lodge did exactly. In Ã¢â¬ËThe Son's Veto', we see almost the same picture but based on the same idea of class distinction. Here, we see Sophy, a parlour maid who is in love with Sam, who is a gardener, and is of the lower class just like Sophy is. Sadly, Sophy, plays the hard to get behaviour which, is so common to Victorian behaviour, and when Sam proposes she stalls, and soon has a fight with him. Then comes along Reverend Twycott, who then notices Sophy as a Ã¢â¬Ëkitten-like flexuous, tender creature', and then after a series of events soon proposes to Sophy, and since she had fought with Sam, he was out of her mind, and so she agrees. The sad thing was that she did not truly love him, but she had immense respect and awe for him, Ã¢â¬Ëwhich almost amounted to veneration'. As the story unfolds, Hardy soon reveals that her trying to step out of her class was a big mistake as she was left unhappy with her life. Reverend Twycott on the other hand, knew that my marrying Sophy, he basically Ã¢â¬Ëcommitted social suicide' as society would totally not accept the marriage between to not social equals who were not of the same class. The quote to prove this is Ã¢â¬Ëtheir was a marriage-service at the communion rails, which hardly a soul knew of. Though this quote it is quite evident that no marriage guests were invited for the sole reason that society would not accept the idea of them being together, and would reject them which would soon make them outcasts. Also, this was because society would not understand a bit, as they always seemed to put no reason before what seemed like logic to them. In Ã¢â¬ËThe Withered Arm' , Farmer Lodge could not marry Rhoda Brook even if he wanted to as he too would be made an outcast in the eyes of society as he was no more a lower class just as Rhoda Brook was, but he was of the higher class and could only be with someone of the same class as he was. The irony in both of these stories is that in Ã¢â¬ËThe Withered Arm', Farmer Lodge truly loved Rhoda Brook, but could not marry her as society did not accept it and so he did not try fighting for their love. Whereas in Ã¢â¬ËThe Son's Veto', Sophy loved Sam very much and could have married him, but because of the fight between the two of them she chose respect for Reverend Twycott, over the love that Sam was offering her. Farmer Lodge infact, was much lower in class than Reverend Twycott was, and also, Rhoda Brook, Sophy and Sam were of the same class. Sophy in choosing Reverend Twycott as her husband who was of the higher class, over Sam who was of the same class as she was, made a terrible mistake as she soon learns that moving out of your class only brought unhappiness. This is because Sophy was never really happy because when Reverend Twycott died, she was left lonely, and she did not find the joy she had with Sam. This was because with Sam she could afford to be herself, that was a person of a lower class, whereas now in the eyes of society and her husband she had to pretend to be a Ã¢â¬Ëlady' which was the artificial her. This can be shown by the quote, Ã¢â¬ËSophy the woman was as charming a partner could possess, though Sophy the lady deficiencies. Ã¢â¬Ë When ananlysing this quote, it makes a whole lot of sense as the real her that was a person of lower class, was a Ã¢â¬Ëwoman' who was Ã¢â¬Ëas charming a partner could possess' that was she was a real nice person but in being a Ã¢â¬Ëlady' she had her Ã¢â¬Ëdeficiencies', that was that although she tried to act like a lady, she never was a perfect one, as she was trying to be something she was not Ã¢â¬â a Ã¢â¬Ëlady'. We can also see how Hardy steps up Sophy from Ã¢â¬Ëwoman' that was so pure and gentle, to a Ã¢â¬Ëlady' that wasn't perfect which in society's eyes was extremely bad. Thus by being with Sam, she could afford to be herself, whereas in the eyes if society she had to be a Ã¢â¬Ëlady'. Also we can see this through two more quotes: Ã¢â¬Ëand wither she would have gone back- O how gladly! Ã¢â¬â even to work in the fields. Through this quote it is quite evident that when she looks on her life in the past and what is now, she does not even mind a single bit and she would be glad to work in the fields, just to get back to the real person she was. The second quote to prove that moving out of one's class rarely brought happiness and satisfaction is, Ã¢â¬ËShe had occasionally thought of him, and wondered if life in a cottage with him would not have been a happier lot than the life she had accepted. Through this quote, it is quite evident that she feels a great sense of regret as there is great probability that she would have been better off with Sam and a happy life. In way her case is quite understandable as she might not have been accepted by many other people because of the class she was in, and this isolation can be seen in the beginning of the story when Hardy talks of the effort she put in every day to set her hair. This can be better understood by the quote, Ã¢â¬ËOne could not understand such weavings and coilings being wrought to last intact for a year, or even a calendar month but that they should be all demolished regularly at bedtime, after a single day of permanence, seemed a reckless waste of successful fabrication. Ã¢â¬Ë Through this quote we can understand that she put in a great effort to design her hair, and Hardy makes it seem like a great work of art which only lasted till the end of the day. The reason why she did this can be seen through the quote, Ã¢â¬ËShe had no maid, and it was the only accomplishment she could boast of. From this we can see that she was not somebody great and she was of the lower class, and since she was not famous or anything, she wanted to be at least good at something, which explains why she Ã¢â¬Ëbraided and twisted' her hair so that she would be recognised for at least something. In addition to this, Sophy hardly had any friends and she was always made ware of her deficiencies either by herself, or by her son who was ashamed and felt embarrassed of the fact that his mother was not a Ã¢â¬Ëlady'. About Sophy not having that many friends, that was because she was not in the real class she belonged to, and because she was not herself. This can be shown through the quote, Ã¢â¬ËSophy's mileu being a suburb of minor tradesmen and under clerks, and her almost only companions the two servants of her own house'. From this quote it is quite visible that she hardly interacted with anyone, and she was more of a quite and silent person being a Ã¢â¬Ëlady', and her stepping out of class had caused her be a person who kept contemplating on how her life might have been with Sam Hobson, the man she loved very much. Her son on the other hand was the result of the nature of society and by this, I mean that her son was a real snob who was very selfish and not concerned about anyone else but himself and he did not help his mother a bit as he made her aware of her deficiencies as a Ã¢â¬Ëlady', and did not love her a inch compared to the affection Sophy felt for her son, Randolph. This can be seen by two quotes, Ã¢â¬ËHas, dear mother Ã¢â¬â not have! This quote is when Sophy uses improper English and when Randolph corrects her, he shouts at her, which is extremely rude, and Sophy does not say anything. Thus, we can see that Sophy was always aware that her main deficiency was in her use of language. The second quote is, Ã¢â¬Ëhis mother, a child of nature herself, had loved in him; he was reducing their compass to a population of a few thousand wealthy and titled people. From this quote one can clearly understand that the love Sophy had for Randolph, her son, was pure, and she loved him with all her heart but he did not care or want to open his heart to her. Also it is evident that as Randolph grew up, he went farther away from his mother, and took the company of famous people as he wanted to establish himself as a real gentleman, and the cause of this was the nature of society that dictated that one would only be recognised for his appearance, class and his behaviour. The company of Randolph is so much in contrast to Sophy's, as she only had the company of Ã¢â¬Ëtwo servants. Ã¢â¬Ë Thus, it is quite understandable that the sophistication society was looking for ended with Randolph becoming snobbish. This also brings to thought that if Farmer Lodge married Rhoda Brook, Rhoda would have been more or less in the same position as Sophy was, but the difference is that Rhoda is a much stronger character than Sophy is. This can be see through the way she handled Farmer Lodge's absence for Gertrude, and this is because she hid not cry or grieve over his departure, although she was quiet when milking the cows and she had a dream of Gertrude. Also, although she hated Gertrude for stealing Farmer Lodge she did not fail to accept Gertrude for her good qualities when she gave her son a pair of boots to wear and made adjustments with her feelings to be herself. Sophy on the other hand is extremely indecisive, as she does not know if she will stay in the Vicarage after the death of the reverend's first wife. Also, when Sam talks to Sophy about settling down together after the death of the reverend death she finds it so hard to first of all bring up the subject to her son, and when he fusses s much she finds it hard to show him who is the real one with authority and she fails in putting her needs first before her spoilt sons'. She does not seem to understand that her son is getting everything his way, and it is time for her to start to get a few things in her direction. Also society's nature was that appearance was always recognised and the person was respected for the way he or she looked. We see that older men always married younger women and this was common, and this can be seen in Ã¢â¬ËThe Withered Arm', when Farmer Lodge marries Gertrude, who is extremely young. This can be proven through the quote, Ã¢â¬ËYears younger than he they say'. This is the comment one of the workers at the dairy make as they talk and gossip about Farmer Lodge's newly wedded wife. We can see the importance of appearance and this can be seen when Gertrude gets her withered arm, and when she soon feels that she would not have bothered about her arm so much had she not got a notion that she was being loved less by her husband. This can be further porved by the quote, Ã¢â¬ËMen think so much of personal appearance'. Through this quote we can understand that she is dejected as her husband doesn't seem to be giving her the same attention as before. This all because society taught men to be aware of appearance and this certainly had its effect on Gertrude. She becomes sad and starts to crave for her husband's love and this can be seen by the quote, Ã¢â¬Ëand was secretly hoping against hope to win back his heart again by regaining at least some at least some of her personal beauty. This shows the real nature of society as men only married women of good appearance and not for the real reason Ã¢â¬â love for one another. We also see her sadness in the nature of society as their marriage was not based on love, but on things like appearance and class distinction. This can be seen in the short story, Ã¢â¬ËThe Withered Arm', where Gertrude feels distressed by the fact that Farmer Lodge is neglecting her because of her left arm which was withered, and this is why she says, Ã¢â¬ËIs years of marriage, and only a few months of love. Here it is very evident that she is upset totally by the fact that she is being ignored, and loved less and the only conclusion to this is that, if society did not have men marry women based on their appearance, then the marriage would be real as the men would accept the women for who they were, and marry them even if they were not that good looking. Thus, it is quite obvious that marriage in Victorian times was not really based on love, and that love was totally not the condition or criteria but it was based on minor things like appearance and class distinction in society. This is clear as Farmer Lodge's marriage to Gertrude was not based on love, but her appearance and her position in society and so when her arm became withered, he neglected, ignored and gave her less attention and love compared to the time when her beauty was complete. As in Ã¢â¬ËThe Son's Veto', Sophy's marriage to Reverend Twycott was also not based on the condition or criteria of love but because she was full of awe and respect for him which amounted to Ã¢â¬Ëalmost veneration'. Thus, both marriages in Ã¢â¬ËThe Withered Arm' and Ã¢â¬ËThe Son's Veto' were marriages of convenience and not for love for one another. For the women they were supposed to be frail, gentle, beautiful, and most of all they were supposed to be very young. We also see the life style of the lower class, in Ã¢â¬ËThe Withered Arm', where Rhoda Brook and the other milk men and women work at the dairy. We can see the simple life the lower class were subjected to and the rough work the lower class were faced with, and this can be seen in the two quotes, Ã¢â¬ËIt was an eighty Ã¢â¬â cow dairy, and the troop of milkers, regular and supplementary, were all at work', Ã¢â¬ËThe hour was six in the evening, and three Ã¢â¬â fourths of the large, red rectangular animals having been finished off'. From these quotes we can see the immense work these lower class people were faced with, and the fact that it was an Ã¢â¬Ëeighty Ã¢â¬â cow dairy', certainly proves that they had a lot of work to do and that there was a lot of milking to be done. This point can be proved by the quote, Ã¢â¬ËThe hour was six in the evening, and three Ã¢â¬â fourths of the large, red rectangular animals having been finished off'. Also, we can see that the class a person belonged to, could be notified by the mode of transport they used. This can be seen in Ã¢â¬ËThe Withered Arm' when Farmer Lodge uses the cart horse to bring his newly wedded wife, Gertrude, home. By using the cart- horse, as his method of transport, he shows clearly that he is of the high class society and by doing this, he not only is recognised for his position but he is also respected for having a wife who is extremely young and good looking. The fact that Farmer Lodge taking a ride in a cart horse was a big thing can be clearly understood by the description of the horse: Ã¢â¬Ëa handsome new gig, with a lemon coloured body and red wheels. Ã¢â¬Ë From this quote it is clearly understood how to understand the class a person was in. Another major aspect of society was their superstitions, and the effects they had on people's character. Superstition is first introduced in Ã¢â¬ËThe Withered Arm', through the dream Rhoda Brook has, and how society made certain people victim of their superstition can be seen in Rhoda Brook, as she was made a victim of society's beliefs. This can be proven by the quote, Ã¢â¬ËShe knew that she had been slyly called a witch since her fall'. This quote is when Rhoda Brook begins to wonder if she did have powers after she had a dream of Gertrude where she hurts her and when she finds out that Gertrude really is, she begins to question. Here, we see society's unfairness in judging people wrongly, and making them doubt themselves about who they were. The impact of society on people can be seen when Gertrude finds out that her husband likes her less because of her withered arm, and because of that, she longs and craves for it, and tries many cures and she turns into a person who is superstitious as she is willing to believe any cure just to get her husband's attention and love back once more. Effect of society an its nature can be seen in Ã¢â¬ËThe Son's Veto', where Sophy's son Randolph, has turned into an entirely different person as he wants to be a pure gentleman, and so he takes the company of famous people, so as to make himself recognised in society and not caring a little about the fact that his mother is all alone. His change in character can be seen in the quote, Ã¢â¬Ëin her son's eyes Ã¢â¬â a mother whose mistakes and origin it was his painful lot as a gentleman to blush for. From this quote, it is clear that Sophy's son Randolph, felt that his mother's deficiency in use of language and being a Ã¢â¬Ëlady' was a flaw in society and he felt ashamed of having a mother who was not a part of society and he felt that this flaw of hers, degraded him in society. Also the dress worn by people indicated their class in society and this can be seen in both short stories. In Ã¢â¬ËThe Withered Arm', we see Farmer Lodge's clothes as Ã¢â¬Ëhis great golden seals hung like a lord's;' while Gertrude wore Ã¢â¬Ëa white bonnet and a silver coloured gownd. Ã¢â¬Ë From these quotes, one can understand that the way they dressed, was with so much sophistication and this clearly showed their position in society. Ã¢â¬Ë In Ã¢â¬ËThe Son's Veto', we see how the clothes worn displayed one's position in society. This can be seen by the quote, Ã¢â¬Ëthe shape of whose hat and jacket implied that he belonged to a well Ã¢â¬â known public school. From this quote it is understood that from the clothes Randolph wore, he was acknowledged as a boy who was of the high class and so it could be easily understood that he Ã¢â¬Ëbelonged' to one of the most expensive and famous. Unfairness in society can be seen in the Ã¢â¬ËWithered Arm', when people are said to be hung for minor things like, Ã¢â¬Ëhorse stealing, arson, and burglary', and sometimes not for the genuine reason of committing a crime, but so that an example would be set for society so as to not to make the same mistake. This can be proven by the quote, Ã¢â¬Ëthey are obliged to make an example of him, there having been so much destruction of property that way lately. Ã¢â¬Ë The unjust nature of society is again seen in Ã¢â¬ËThe Withered Arm', when Gertrude finds it hard to go to jail so that she could touch the back of the neck of a person hanged because women were not allowed in unless they had the company of a man and this shows the biased nature of society. This can be seen by the quote, Ã¢â¬Ëbut what means she should adopt for obtaining admission to the jail. Thus, all I can finally say is that both stories were tragic in their own way, all because a few characters went a little higher in society. In Ã¢â¬ËThe Withered Arm', Farmer Lodge went higher in society and left his original wife, Rhoda Brook whom he had a son with, and married Gertrude who died trying to get her arm healed as Farmer Lodge married her because of her appearance and so he was left with neither Gertrude or Rhoda Brook . In Ã¢â¬ËThe Son's Veto' Sophy married Reverend Twycott because she had respect for him and not because she loved him, although she did really love Ã¢â¬ËSam Hobson', and when the Reverend died, she was left alone and longed for Sam's love but it did not happen because she was indecisive, and as she could not tell her son that she had to move on with her life whether or not he liked it.