Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Marketing Plan for The Times Newspaper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Marketing Plan for The Times Newspaper - Essay Example This essay stresses that marketing strategy is primarily concerned with the process where a need satisfying product or service is exchanged for a certain value and there are mainly four variables that constitute a market offering and they are: product, distribution/place, price, and marketing communication. To a greater extent, the success of any marketing strategy employed by any company is strongly dependent on the effectiveness of its marketing communication. There must be a good flow of information between the buyer and the seller to enable the buyers to make informed decisions which always take precedence before the actual purchase. In its endeavor to establish a new product, The Times ought to adopt strategies that would allow them to clearly distinguish their target market in a bid to have some competitive advantage over other rival competitors who also operate in the same industry. This paper makes a conclusion that communication plays a very important role in marketing a product to the customers. The advent of the internet has brought about sweeping changes in the way organisations operate as well as market their products. There is need for an organisation to segment its market in order to clearly identify their target customers in order to have a competitive advantage over other rival competitors that may exist in the market. As noted, there is need for The Times newspaper to effectively use marketing communication in order to successfully launch a new product to the customers.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Gender and Students Grades Essay Example for Free

Gender and Students Grades Essay I decided to choose to do my project on if the gender of the teacher reflects what the student gets in the class. I am interested in this because I feel that a male teacher, for me, does a better job teaching. They have a stronger personality and are louder which keeps you listening. I chose to do this project because I am interested in seeing how the average student feels compared to how I feel. In order to collect my data, I will test a total of 10 classes, 2 classes from the following subjects; Algebra 2 regular, Chemistry Honors, IB History, Media Arts, and English 10 Honors. One class will be from a male teacher and the other from a female teacher. I will the split the classes into two groups male and female. In the two groups I will categorize the 5 classes into what the student got in the class. There will be 5 categories A, B, C, D, and F. Since I only want 5 columns I will round the A-s, B-s, C-s, and D-s to a regular letter grade. As well as the A+’s, B+’s, C+’s and D+’s to a regular letter grade. After obtaining all the data, I will begin to compare and analyze the data. First, I will do a simple process by finding the mean, median, and mode of the two groups. Since my data is in letter grades I will have to change the letters to a GPA. For example an A would be a 4, also since I am rounding the A-s to As an A- would also be a 4. Finding the mean, median and mode will show what the average grades are in the male and female classes. That data can be compared easily to show what grades are getting in which gender class. Another simple mathematical process is making a histogram. Each category (A, B, C, D, and F) will have two bars coming from it, one male and one female. This can show how many of the each letter grade is coming from each gender. It will visually show what gender is getting what grades in the classes. The last mathematical procedure I will be doing is a Chi-squared table which will be my sophisticated process. This will be my most accurate calculation to show if gender of the teacher is dependent on the grade the student gets in class. I am going to make  ·this table by splitting the date into two columns, male and female, and then by the grade the student got in the class. When making the histogram for one of my simple processes I added all the As together from the male classes then all the Bs and so forth. I did this for the female classes as well. For the graph my x-axis is the grade, y-axis is the number of students in the column. There are two bars coming up from each grade group to show the comparison between male and female. Calculating the Chi-squared of this data will be my last process. To find the Chi-squared I had to make a table with all the grades in it and which gender it was for. I then had to find the expected value, an example of this was multiplying the total number from the male column and the A column then dividing that by the total of grades overall. After getting the observed and expected tables I subtracted the observed from the expected then square rooted this then divided it by the expected. I did this for each column. Then the numbers were added together to get a chi-squared of 4.88. I used the rejection inequality given a significance level of 5%. To find the p-value I put my calculations into my graphing calculator to get a p-value of 0.363. I then found the degrees of freedom by subtracting the rows by the columns. This was able let me know which significance level to use which is 9.488. Since the chi-squared was false, you accept the null. Some of the errors I saw in my project were the classes I chose, Mrs. Mel and Mr. Nichols were an IB History class. An IB History class is a higher knowledge class, all of the students in these two classes got either an A or a B. Since everyone had higher grades this made an error in my project because two of my classes did not have three of the letter grades. This skewed my grades toward higher GPAs. I should have chosen a class that had more variety in grades. Another thing that made an error in my project was when I did the mean, median, and mode I rounded the grades. For instance a B- would be a B and a B+ would be a B. Rounding these grades made the variety not as big. Since students work well with different teachers another way to do this project which would give me more accurate data would be to compare a student who switched teachers between the two semesters from a male to a female. This would have showed more how a certain student acts with different genders rather than how a group of students acts. In conclusion, it shows that the gender of the teacher and the grade the students gets in that class are independent. The x ² calc was less than the critical value. The results I saw were similar to what I thought would happen. All though the calculations were not as accurate as I would have liked them to be and the conclusion is very vague to what I thought would have happened. This does change how I feel about gender affecting the student because I felt like the male was more of an effective teacher than a female but the calculations show the female is more effective.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Effects of Media on Food Market Essay examples -- Nutrition

Dieting, in the past few decades, has become a significant part of American culture today. This includes fad dieting, regular utilization of diet products such as Slimfast, and even metabolism altering pills. Ironically, in addition to this aspect of popular American culture today, there is also an obesity epidemic. In reaction to these problems presented, unfortunately, there is also a tremendously skewed ideal body image for those influenced by societal standards. Dieting products (â€Å"diet† labeled) only encourage a skewed body image. How does mass production and marketing of diet products influence healthy eating in the United States today? The answer lies within the media codes we accept as reality within marketing and advertisements. Mass-produced diet meals were first introduced to the United States around the 1980’s. They became much more popular in the late1990’s and early 2000’s. These foods were produced to be a healthier alternative to mass-produced pre-made meals. The basis of the dieting problem in the United States probably derives from this process of altering, rather than changing, consumers’ ideas of what healthy is. The Cultivation Theory, which was addressed towards violence in class, can also be applied to this phenomenon of healthy eating. This theory addresses how media and marketing, in this context, prepare the ground (consumers) to be a condition in which things (dieting products) will grow. The popularization and acceptance of the â€Å"diet meal† as opposed to going back to the basics, rather all natural, created a fertile environment for companies to create more diet products and market them as such. The problem, however, is that through this proce ss the terms: diet, lean, low-calorie, sugar-f... it all the more important for consumers to read and analyze the nutritional labels provided before making a purchase. Works Cited Colbin, Annemarie. "Calories - How Much Do They Count." (2009): n. page. Web. 3 May. 2012. "For Consumers." FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration . FDA, 12/08/2011. Web. 3 May 2012. Hawkes, Corinna. "Food Impostors." Alt HealthWatch. 61.1 (2009): n. page. Web. 7 May. 2012. "Hidden Valley." The Original Ranch Makes Everything Taste Better. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May 2012. . Mayo Clinic Staff, . "Nutrition and Healthy Eating."Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 03/31/2011. Web. 3 May 2012. Schnitzer, Johann Georg. "Human Nutrition." Alive: Canada's Natural Health & Wellness Magazine. (2003): 89-90. Print.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Informations Management

Systems and Management Contents Executive Summary The reports sets about assessing HA Loge's current business operation both in the UK and India, this done by utilizing three analysis tools, SOOT analysis, PESTLE analysis and Porters Fiver Forces analysis. From the SOOT analysis the reports highlights several key points, which includes the potential of overseas sales in emerging economies and the benefits of having manufacturing faculties in India.The lack of developed e-commerce and the poor utilization of information technology advances have been highlighted as one of the biggest weakness of HA Loge's. The PESTLE analysis has shown that while traditional consumer (local councils) have less money to spend and sales may decline In the short term, the opportunities from a new ‘Affluent Achievers' market holds great promise. The desire for going ‘green' In both social attitudes and wider environmental laws is also an opportunity that can be exploited for HA Loge's gains.Por ters Five Forces has highlighted that threat of new entrants is high because the Entry barrier is high as many competitors try to earn market share in the business of street furniture. The bargaining power of buyers mains high due to councils trying to get the lowest price possible and high number companies who are sharing / or trying to enter the same market. Threat of substitute products remains low because of the high saturation of competitors producing similar products. Bargaining power of suppliers is also low thanks to the adduce of manufacturers offering highly competitive prices and low specialization within the market.A new IT portfolio has also been recommend for HA Loge's to implement, this includes a complete overhaul of the current ageing IT systems and new website as long as an active social media engagement. A new ERP is vital for HA Loge's future and it has been recommended that SAP be implemented across the company and a new website that will help increase sale with in the ‘Affluent Achievers' market. The risks of implementing such changes has also been factored in and explored in details, with the potential of possible issues occurring, such as staff training and skills.The effect that the new portfolio will have on both the suppliers and customers of HA Loge's has also been explored and in conjunction with the implementation timeshare, has highlighted the need for a well organized and structured phasing to the new systems. The recommendation is that HA Loge's take a multi phased approach to implementing the new systems that includes a pre-stage of evaluation of staff and their ability to use the new systems and a comprehensive training program .This will be followed by a trial run of the new systems, a soft and partial changeover and then finally a complete switch to the new system, whilst keeping the old systems for 2-3 months as a backup. Following the situational analysis of HA Loge's current business and the assessment of its IT req uirements, our recommendations on what HA Loge's requires for the future will allow it to succeed ND grow into new markets and remain profitable for the following years. 1 . Situational Analysis and Strategic Direction 1. 1 . SOOT Analysts 1. . 1 Strengths As it can be seen from the above table, H. A Logon & Sons, are in an advantageous situation compared to other companies, especially in the United Kingdom. The fact that the company was established since 1952 and has shown stability economically through time allows the opportunity to create a very strong and powerful name. The brand potential can allow immediate expansion and takeover of the U. K market rely due to its relationship with the local councils and the existing top of quality product range they have.The market is growing and the low competition may allow the company to become market leaders. The Polls group have conducted a market analysis which shows that a lot of the street furniture companies are under immediate dange r (Pillions, 2014). The possession of the Indian factory reduces the cost and provides a better advantage on the pricing of the products since they can be offered at lower prices. The weaknesses described in the SOOT analysis can be fully exploited and used to the company's advantage.The creation of a website and use of social networking will allow easier market penetration and provide easier and cost effective means to reach the target segmentations. It is however noteworthy that the relationship between the H. Q. In India and U. K should be worked on, as this can be beneficial to the client. Better organizational behavior would effectively mean a better working environment and consequently more efficient production. The operations management could be well benefited from such a change. . 1. 3 Opportunities The opportunities created since the budget for immediate reformation came into existence are extensive in various directions. By creating a patriotic slogan, it will enable the e nhancement of the company's image, thus gaining an advantage over other competitors, especially since the major clients of the investigating market are the councils. One can argue that here is no better way to spend the tax payer's money to a native company with a lot of history of consistent quality and relations.The Lugubrious University can be funded in PhD to offer extensive research on LED Lighting. Especially since LED lighting market is about to increase by 20% McKinney&Company, 2012) and surpass 20 billion USED by 2020 (Technology, 2014). Biding may be done in the Chinese projects ready to be released in 2017. This is due to the fact that the Chinese government had a problem with the already installed LED Lighting and are expected to replace the lighting introduced. 0-15 to street lighting companies will be able to bid on the project (Magazine, 2007-2014). There is the chance to enter the Chinese market with an upgraded and more professional image. A more environmental frien dly approach will attract attention. 1. 1. 4 Threats Even though threats may not be originated from the immediate environment, a company that is trying to expand globally needs to evaluate any potential threat worldwide. The growing expertise of U. S and China on LED lighting may be proven difficult to reach.However with effective research, the knowledge can be obtained and surpass the existing threats. There is growing competition in the Far East and these companies may be favored and correctly encountered. In conclusion, H. A Logon & Sons can expand in other markets such as the Chinese market. They can reach the market segmentation ‘affluent achievers' through proper marketing and anally they can even expand in the direction of street advertising with minimum costs but great profits.This can be achieved because street furniture is already sold in the local councils. Advertising is a very powerful tool for expansion as it can provide instant change in profits and promotion of the company. This idea is already exploited by Caduceus, a French company Caduceus, 2014) and the market is suspected to reach 35. 5 billion USED by 2016 (Edition, 2014). Key factors for this increase are arbitration, meliorating global economy and digital out of home advertising. 1. 2. PESTLE AnalysisTechnological Technological Improvements Company's spending on R (PhD) Access to newest technology Social Media (development & Usage) Socio-cultural Educational Level CEO – friendly habits Turning into Charity Organizations 0 Corporate Social Responsibility (Eunice or other corporations) New market Different culture organizational Culture (India Manufacture) Population growth Attitudes towards saving and investing ‘Affluent Achievers' Attitudes towards product quality and customer service Political Government regulations Economic policies Tax policy Trade restrictions Economic Inflation rateI-J is growing economically so more spending to normal products. (Business Economi cs) China ready to offer projects (LED lights? ) Exchange rates (entering global market) Fiscal policies (India) Growth rates Labor cost minimized Trade flows and patterns (PhD) Environmental Recycling Waste management Attitude toward ‘green' or ecological products Legal Law that affects the business environment in Asia Vs. law in the UK Industry specific regulations e-commerce From deducting a PESTLE analysis three major points can be derived and should be exploited. Firstly, countries nowadays are trying to be as CEO-friendly as possible.The CEO-friendly awareness is increasingly more popular, therefore the company should follow an environmental approach. By producing street furniture or more products in particular street lighting that indeed are environmental friendly, the company can attract buyers. Entering an CEO-friendly mode will show sensitivity company. Thus the councils will be more attracted to the company's products since they will benefit from the CEO-friendly ap proach. Secondly, the current recession is fading away and the coming years will be marked with an economic boom since England is recovering effectively from the economic crisis (Oxalate, 2013).The increase in income will provide increase in demand as there is a positive relationship between the two variables. This would inevitably mean that the market of the ‘affluent achievers' will also increase and this is the market that Loge's should concentrate on. A report by the ALGA shows that between 2011 and 201 5 spending cuts will amount to 33% in real terms. It is clear to see that the previous strong consumer base in local councils may falter and as a source of revenue may not be growing, least not in the short term. Therefore Loge's should be more aggressive with contract bidding.This also leads to a secondary point that out cash flow in the short term maybe less and more opportunities must be sought out, as well as a better financing (Association, 2013). Thirdly, political fa ctors are defined as political issues which can occur in the company, in the areas where the company is operating, both nationwide and worldwide. The effect on business and legislation can be done by political changes and globalization. Government regulations, tax policy and trade restrictions are the main factors that should be taken into notice.Finally, technology is rapidly developing, especially in countries as USA and China hat are more advanced in markets of LED lighting or even street advertising. By investing in technology and creating Research and Development support teams, the company may expertise in LED Lighting sector and can increase its product range such as including interactive panels, which allow advertising to occur. The company may not be directly involved with the advertising but they can actually sell or rent the panels to the local councils.The councils can choose whether to advertise events or other companies for personal profit. The PESTLE analysis did not r aise any flags to any legal concerns or any other matter of the type. 1. 3. Porter five forces The threat of new entrants is high. The company is a market leader in I-J and competitors abroad, bigger companies that have better technological equipment and are trying to earn market share in the business of street furniture. They also have better relationships with councils abroad, since Loge's company has relationships mainly in UK and isn't established long enough abroad.Furthermore, these companies can take advantage of their bigger brand awareness and make agreements more easily than Lagan's company. However, Supply -Side economies of scale are exploited for Loge's since they own their supply factory. This spreads the fixed costs over more units. This deters entry by forcing the ‘aspired entrant' to come in the industry on a large scale production or accept a cost disadvantage. Finally incumbency advantages are independent of size. This effectively means that H. A. Loge's are not easily threatened by potential entrants due to their geographic location Cobber, 2010).The bargaining power of suppliers is low. The company has the opportunity to collaborate with many manufacturers as suppliers, which allows the company to easily make an agreement with another supplier. There is sufficiency f raw materials, which doesn't allow suppliers to have monopoly on them. Bulk buying can be used and this will result in having discount in price during purchasing. The bargaining power of buyers is high due to the large volume of business agreements between the company and the councils for a wide range of products. Failing at the negotiations with the councils can result in losing a wide range of business projects.Their high power gives them the allowance to force down prices and the Loge's company shall accept it since there is the threat of their competitors. The threat of substitute products is low. All companies in the street furniture business manufacture almost the same products and there are no known substitutes. LED lights and panels could be characterized as substitute products, but there aren't brought in the East Midlands market yet (assumption). In the case that the substitutes are considered high, Loge's should distance itself from substitutes through product performance and marketing.The threat of intense segment rivalry is high. In UK during the last years many companies were obliged to exit the street furniture market because of the economic crisis. The companies that survived Loge's company), managed to dominate in the I-J market, but as it seems lately there is an increasing number of big companies from abroad that are trying to enter and invest in this market. â€Å"Rivalry is especially destructive to profitability if it gravitates solely to price because price competition transfers profits directly from an industry to its customers†.The new market of ‘affluent achievers' will likely draw new entrants due to the chan ce of exploitation. Care should be considered to avoid the above statement. Although H. A Loge's will be the first to enter they should do so in a manner that will allow them to establish their network with brand recognition, excellence in customer service and price stability (E. Porter, 2008). 2. Metrics,'Kip At H Logan, attention has always been paid mostly to their financial metrics as opposed to the inputs that drive the numbers.In this section, other possible performance metrics will be discussed according to the new proposed strategy plan. Financial metrics are like descriptive statistics and says something unique about a characteristic of the whole body of data that might not be obvious from merely reviewing individual finance figures (Tax, 2009). Firms and management require an objective way to measure performance so more often than not, it's easier to go straight into the result and forgetting to measure also what led to those results.Financial metrics are useful but should n't be used on its own because financial performance is a result or consequence of something else (Tax, 2009). Operating metrics are the inputs that correlate or drive the desired outcome, if more attention is paid to the operating metrics then financial outputs wouldn't be a big issue for the organization. Examples of these operating metrics include customer satisfaction, customer repetition, customer referral rate, quality of product etc. This is the aspect of metrics this report will focus on (Tax, 2009). 2. 1 . New Proposed Strategy for H.Logan More friendly environmental products(CEO-friendly products) Exploitation of the ‘Affluent Achievers' market Investment in research and development team Extension/Reduction in product line Adequate HER staff to deal with staff issues/concerns especially the issue between the Indian office and the WHQL Set clear goals and objectives Encourage customer and staff feedback Possible reduction in staff from both branches(the I-J and India) and training the Taft removed from the office to become call centre staff where they can deal with customer enquiries, queries, complaints and orders (e-commerce) Provision of services, e. . Offering delivery and installation services etc. Website, proper marketing strategy Introduction of new IT software (SAP software) 2. 2. Potential New Metrics for H. Logan Metrics are used for a variety of reasons. Metrics such as market share, sales increases, margins, and customer satisfaction surveys enable firms to take stock of where they are now and where they want to be in the future (Houses & Katz, 1998). Hauser and Katz, 1998 suggest that every metric will affect actions and decisions whether used mainly to influence behavior, to evaluate future strategies, or to take stock.An ideal metrics system should be tied to overall profit, apply to all employees and be designed to encourage extra effort, however if stretched to the limit can result in counter-productive actions. Relating these metrics back to H. Logan, below is an ideal list of what metrics should be measured in their company. Measurement of how their products and services are perceived in the market- this an be done by market research to determine if people view their products as high end luxury or affordable but quality products etc.Measure how much these ‘affluent achievers' are willing to spend on lighting and how often they purchase household goods. Organization views it as well. Find out what the customers want- by measuring how often they repeat orders, refer the organization's products to their friends and family, or how often they cancel orders, and how many customers never return to H. Logan to buy goods. The Voice of the Employee- this can be measured by finding out what the employees ant, what they value. This can lead to enabling employees make decisions and take actions that they know are going to be necessary to achieve their metrics-based goals.A balanced score card system will be im plemented in the next part to get fair balance of the new metrics to be measured. 2. 3. Balanced Scorecard A balanced scorecard is a strategic management system used to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organization, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organization performance against strategic goals (Kaplan & Norton, 2007). The balanced scorecard is a management system that enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action.It provides feedback around both the internal business processes and external outcomes in order to continuously improve strategic performance and results. When fully deployed, the balanced scorecard transforms strategic planning from an academic exercise into the nerve centre of an enterprise. The balanced scorecard suggests that we view the organization from four perspectives, and to develop metrics, collect data and analyze it relative to each of these perspectives which inc lude: The learning and growth perspective- This entails employee training and corporate cultural attitudes related to both individual and corporate self- improvement.It is the most essential foundation for the success of any organization. The business process perspective- this allows the managers to know how well their business is performing and if it matches their customer requirements. This system should be implemented by those who know the system inside and out. The customer perspective-customer focus and perspective is important in any organization and most organizations are beginning to realize the importance of their customers. If customers aren't satisfied, it is likely that they will find those suppliers/ organizations that satisfy them.So measuring what customers want and like the type of customers they are and the processes that need to be followed is essential. The financial perspective- this is the traditional way of measuring metrics but still useful in measuring the ad ditional financial-related data, such as risk assessment The learning and Growth perspective The business process Perspective The customer The financial goals. Measurement of how much the ‘affluent achievers' are willing to spend on lighting ND how often they purchase household goods.Measurement of how their products and services are perceived in the market place by carrying out a market research to determine if people view their products as high-end luxury or affordable but quality products etc. Do the consumers view the products ‘attributes as the same attributes the organization views it as well. Find out what the customers want by measuring how often they repeat orders, refer the organization's products to their friends and family, or how often they cancel orders, and how many customers never return to H.A. Loge's to buy goods. How much is available to spend on the new strategy and development. If there isn't adequate funding, how will the organization source for fun ds. How much profitability lies in the development of the new developments/ strategy/plan. Measurement of how much the new systems will cost and how to priorities the funding of the new system. Measurement of the cost of training staff, R costs and risk assessment. Measurement of the cost of marketing and developing new website. . Portfolio of Systems 3. 1 . Portfolio Enterprise Resource Planning can be crucial to a business, especially one as out- dated as this. As in any other business, processes essential to its success include inventory and order management, accounting, human resources and customer relationship management. At its most basic level ERP Software ‘integrates these various functions into one complete system to streamline the process and information across the entire organization' (Devonshire, 2014).First and foremost the company needs to invest in the current website as it is over 10 years old. In today's technological age, online content is more vital than eve r so as not to fall behind. The Internet is the way most potential customers will search for H. A Logon & sons and if market emphasizes their greater need to invest in this part of the business. Loge's finds itself under intensive pressure from new competition abroad, so they must have some sort of product differentiation to really show prospective customers what they are all about.They should also look to add a separate section to the website specifically for the home solutions potential market. They are what kept the business going when their competitors disappeared and it fits in very well with the strategy to exploit the ‘Affluent Achievers' market. This is a new market opportunity and one that must be seized so H. A Logon & sons can progress to the next level. Due to the cost and long-term maintenance of the website, it would be appropriate to outsource the website production and maintenance too professional company.The company will also need to invest in new IT systems b ecause what exists has been running for over 35 years and has become increasingly unstable. It is important to realize that ‘an ERP system that is not the right fit tends to weigh down the entire organization' (lyre, 2012), this is why we have taken special care in narrowing down possible systems the company could use such as Oracle, Sage and SAP. Oracle represents more of an integrated system, while Sage pride themselves on the ease of use but the most suitable system for H. A Logon & Sons is the ‘SAP business objects solutions' system.This we believe brings a far more holistic process to the table and helps solve some of the problems they have now and reduce the overall cost that comes with implementation. SAGE and Oracle might be better at certain aspects but the SAP system is more consistent across the board as the feature analysis (table 1 below) depicts. ‘The evaluation of the ERP process must consider usability as a critical success factor' (lyre, 2012) and this is what the SAP system ensures. It provides an intuitive means to unify the information that business users need for their daily activities.It eliminates the need to access multiple applications, providing relevant information form a central location'. This as we can see will already eliminate the problem the company has had over the years where they have to input the same data several times because some systems aren't integrated. It comes with ‘Large Scale information distribution', which is very useful as the company has bases in both England and India. This helps because the platform supports distribution of content o up to 1 million recipients and allows the workers have all they need available to them.The most important integration this system brings is helping the company make decisions based on the whole picture. As mentioned earlier, ERP integrates many aspects such as HER, operations etc. The problem with this is that we tend to gain individual views based on the se aspects but the SAP system gives a ‘unified view of the businesses and enables its users to gain fresh new perspectives. Using the Package approach is beneficial as it's cheaper and can be tailored to the needs of the company. Weightings SAP SAGE Oracle

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Political Theory Essay

Envy Test—The theory that the division of resources is actually equal if and only if one person does not prefer someone else’s portion of the wealth to his own. That means that if everyone in society is ahppy with what they have as compared to what everyone else has then the society passes the envy test. This has never happened and seems contrary to human nature. The further fallacy is that it could ever be achieved in that some people are born with innate talents that cannot be changed to give them fewer resources. Unremunerated rights—Proponents of this political theory argue that the Bill of Rights was not intended as a list of all the rights a person should be guaranteed under the Constitution. They argue that rights not listed, for instance the right to privacy, still exist. This theory was first put forth by the Warren Court in arguing that people had a right to privacy. It is also frequently used in the abortion rights debate as a justification for a woman’s right to control her own body. Politics of recognition—this is the political theory that argues we can only achieve enlightenment and equality when we recognize that people are not homogenous and acknowledge the inherent differences among people. This is almost the exact opposite of politics of equality which claim that all people have the same basic needs, wants and desires and should be treated all the same. Civic engagement—is the term used to define a person’s involvement in the social and political causes of the world around them. In psychology, it used primarily to describe how involved a person is in social causes—volunteering at a soup kitchen, etc. In political science terms, it is used to define how involved a person is in the participatory aspects of government—do they just vote, take an active role in campaigns, support certain candidates, etc. Black consciousness—primarily used in relation to South African politics, this is the theory than being black is more than a skin color and represents the way the minority chooses to act toward itself and toward others. The movement argues that blacks in South Africa exploit each other more than whites exploit each other and that part of the problem is a culturally defined set of values and attributes that they have accepted about themselves. The movement calls for blacks to band together to change the way they treat themselves and to change the way they are treated by the remainder of society. Veil of ignorance—this is the theory that citizens are deliberately kept in the dark about the actual effects of certain legislation. In 1971, philosopher John Rawls argued that social justice requires that people be blind to the way something will impact them in particular and look instead to how it affects society as whole. In recent years, the argument has been made the special interest groups have lifted the veil of ignorance making everyone consider how legislation affects them personally. Universal citizenship—the goal of universal citizenship is to eliminate all barriers to participation in the political process. Thus, under a proposal for it in the European Union, even children would have the right to vote, though this would be carried out by their parents until they reached a certain age either 16 or 18. It assumes that everyone should have an equal right to participate in the political process. Anthropocentrism—is the process of viewing things from a solely human perspective and the word is usually used in a derogatory sense implying that by being so self-absorbed in the wants, needs and desires of humanity we may be ignoring the needs of another equally important species. This is completely in opposition to the concepts of survival of the fittest and to the victor goes the spoils. According to Dworkin, Adrian (the gardener) owes nothing to Bruce (the tennis player), as a matter of justice. Although they will have unequal goods, this is not unjust. However, Adrian might owe something to Claude (the unsuccessful gardener), and Adrian’s descendents may owe something to Bruce’s descendents. Why? In your answer, be sure to identify and apply Dworkin’s theory of distributive justice. In Dworkin’s theory of distributive justice, the beginnings are the all important state as is their impact on the end.   In this scenario, the statement that Adrian owes nothing to Bruce implies that they began life with equal resources or that Bruce began life with greater resources. It does not discuss whether Bruce might owe something to Adrian. Likewise, by saying that Adrian might owe something to Claude, who is unemployed, it implies that Claude and Adrian have equal resources and equal talents, but that Adrian has been successful where Claude has not. Furthermore, by saying that Adrian’s descendants might owe something to Bruce’s descendents the question implies that those descendants might have unequal beginning resources and ending statuses. The key to Dworkin’s distribution of wealth theory is that equal resource means equality. Therefore, if both Adrian and Bruce have the same basic resources—family, education, etc.—then they have met the initial requirement for equality. However, when a situation develops so that Adrian envies the things that Bruce has, the equality is gone. The problem with Dworkin’s theory is that it fails to address the impact of talents in the equation and also fails to address non-financial aspects of the envy test. For example, if Adrian and Bruce are able to achieve equal financial success with their respective professions, they should be equal under the envy test, but if Adrian believes (accurately or not) that Bruce has a more glamorous life with less work, more access to fame, etc., then the situation may still fail the envy test. This example perfectly demonstrates the flaws in the envy test and in Dworkin’s theory. Regardless of the flaws, Dworkin’s theory has been largely employed and thus the other caveats of the question.   The way that Dworkin’s theory has been employed, it is accepted as a given that Claude, who is unemployed, will be envious of Adrian and therefore they will be unequal. To even out this inequality, the government application of the theory has been to take resources (in the form of taxes) from Adrian and give them to Claude. The problem with this solution is that it can create envy in the opposite direction. To make them equal, you would have to remove half of what Adrian has and give it to Claude so that he would not be envious of Adrian. Then, the two would have equal resources.   Then, however, Adrian is likely to be jealous of Claude who has all the same things that Adrain does but who has not had to work for them; he will envy Claude’s lifestyle. Ultimately, much of the bashing done about the distribution of wealth system comes down to just that—another form of envy. The liberal view of universal citizenship has been challenged by feminists and advocates for race-based identity politics. What is this view, what about it has been challenged, and what is it alleged to be missing? In your answer, discuss the theories of Young/MacKinnon and Fanon/Biko. The problem with the liberal view of universal citizenship is that it requires as basis equality. If all people were equal, had always been equal, and would always been equal, then the concept of universal citizenship would be not only valid, but the appropriate thing to promote. However, the reason that it is widely-challenged by feminists and advocated for race-based identity politics is that at no point in human history have individuals ever been treated as true equals. MacKinnon and other feminists argue that it is more likely that without identifiable and motivate sub-groups of voters, the system will default o maintaining the status quo and will as a consequence promote dominance by white male society. Fanon’s argument is similar though not exactly the same. He argues that to appreciate the value of citizenship, one must have been involved in a violent struggle to attain it. This is sort of revolutionary politics at heart. It assumes that people do not value rights that they are given so much as those that they fight for. The basic premised is that in fighting, through violent struggle to attain citizenship and later the rights conveyed with citizenship, the African-American (and to a lesser extent other racial groups) has gained a self-identity that would be lost if they had been granted universal citizenship. It is possible that the opposition to universal citizenship comes from our ingrained belief in traditional political theory as developed by dead white men who placed huge limitations on citizenship including social class, race, gender, age, land ownership and literacy as well as other requirements through the ages. It should also be considered whether, despite their high-minded motivations, feminists and others who have been granted citizenship and the rights therein are not opposing universal citizenship in their own out-moded version of us versus the other. As they are no longer a distinctive portion of the other, it is possible that they desire to continue to bestow that status on different individuals including recent immigrants and children. Conservative opponents to universal citizenship say that the concept eliminates concepts of national allegiance and even racial allegiance, leading to a homogony of people that destroys diversification and eliminates cultural differences. While some proponents would say that is exactly the point, opponents point out that assimilation of all different ideas into one mainstream is counterproductive and eliminates the desire for and will to change. Kymlicka claims that all approaches to contemporary political theory endorse the proposition that all persons should be treated as equals, and that their disagreement comes down to the practical question of what that entails. What must be done to treat all persons as equals, according to libertarianism, liberal equality, utilitarianism, feminism, and Marxism? According to libertarian philosophy, equality happens when people do not use force against one another and people are given all rights which do not impose on the rights of others. This is the ultimate culmination of the Wiccan creed of â€Å"It harm none, do what though wilt.†   Libertarians believe in the defensive use of force to protect what is yours, but are staunchly opposed to the use of aggressive force. Aggressive force can never be used to promote equality. Those who argue for liberal equality believe that it is the opportunity matters. If people are given an equal chance at success, then the system has been successful according to those who support liberal equality. Utilitarians believe that people are equal when the common good is enacted for the rights of all people and that the common good applies equally to all members of society. Proponents of this theory argue that good is the important motivator and if all the actions are taken in a strict moral and ethical stance for the good of all people then the actions are inherently equal. Feminism comes in two distinctive branches: one simply promoted that after years of oppression a woman is equal to a man and can therefore do anything he can do. In an extreme form of feminism, some believe that the woman’s capability of imbuing life and her propensity for compassion make her superior to the male of the species.   The problem in extreme forms of feminism is that they also believe women should be given more than equal opportunities in an effort to make up for the centuries of oppression by men and that men should be denigrated to the class of secondary citizens.  Ã‚   Marxist theory claims that men are unequal in their talents and abilities, but that one talent or ability should not be more highly valued than another—thus a person whose talent is in digging ditches should be as valued as a person whose talent is neurosurgery. Are equal rights sufficient for realizing justice? Why or why not? In your answer, consider and discuss those theories of justice that find equal rights sufficient as well as those that do not. Equal rights are not sufficient for justice. There must also be an equal application of those rights. For instance, if a black man and a white man are accused of a crime, both have an equal right under the law to a jury of their peers, but depending on the racial makeup of the jury selection pool, they may not have an equal opportunity for the enforcement of those rights. A black man may find himself facing a just or only white Americans and vice versa.   Likewise, technically a rich man and a poor man have the same right counsel if accused of a crime, but the reality of access tells us that the rich man will likely hire an independent lawyer and will be less likely to serve time for his crime.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

How to Understand Score Percentiles

How to Understand Score Percentiles Confused about score percentiles? Dont be! If youve gotten back your score report, whether its for the SAT, GRE, LSAT or another standardized test, and youre wondering what that percentage posted front and center on your score report actually means, then heres your explanation. Score Percentile Rankings One instance in which youll be viewing score percentiles is when you look at school rankings to figure out whether or not you even have a shot at getting in your school of choice. Lets say youre looking at the SAT scores for the Really Prestigious School youre thinking about attending, and you find yourself staring at this information from last years incoming freshman when you peruse their website: Really Prestigious School: 25th percentile scores for incoming freshmen:  140075th percentile scores for incoming freshmen: 1570 So, what does that mean? 25th percentile means that 25% of the accepted students made a 1400 or below on the test. It also means that 75% of the accepted students scored  above  a 1400  75th percentile means that 75% of the accepted students made a 1570 or below on the test and that  25% of the accepted students scored  above  a 1570. Basically, most incoming freshman from this school have scored at least a 1400 and that a quarter of their incoming freshman have scored a 1570 or higher.   Why Do Score Percentile Rankings Matter? They are a great way to gauge whether or not your scores are in the range of the students entering the school of your choice. If youre shooting for Harvard, but your scores are more consistent with people going to community college in your area, then you may need to sign up for a prep service to help increase your scores. Now keep in mind that scores arent the only factor admissions counselors review when determining your acceptance (GPA, community service, school involvement, the all-important essay are in there, too). However, scores play a big part, so its imperative to get the best score you can on your test. Score Percentiles on Your Test You also may be looking at your own score percentiles when you get back your score report for a certain test. Lets say you get some numbers like these: Evidence-Based Reading: 89th percentileRedesigned Math: 27th percentileEvidence-Based Writing: 90th percentile Heres the interpretation: Evidence-Based Reading: You scored higher than 89% of the people who took this section. (You did really well!)Redesigned Math: You scored higher than 27% of the people who took this section. (You should have prepared a bit more!)Evidence-Based Writing: You scored higher than 90% of the people who took this section. (You did really well!) Why Do Score Percentiles on Your Test Matter? They are a great way to gauge whether or not your scores are in the range of the students who have also taken your test, which is helpful for understanding your competition for admissions, and learning the areas you could use more work. In the example above, for example, the math score was weak, so if youre considering going into a math field, it may be wise to figure out why you scored poorly in that area. Good Score Percentiles Whats a Good SAT Score?Whats a Good PSAT Score?Whats a Good ACT Score?Whats a Good GRE Score?Whats a Good GMAT Score?Whats a Good LSAT Score?Whats a Good MCAT Score?

Monday, October 21, 2019

Japan vs Uk Economy Essay Example

Japan vs Uk Economy Essay Example Japan vs Uk Economy Essay Japan vs Uk Economy Essay Contemporary history of Japan and UK Japan is the first Asian country to industrialise its economy and become on par with the advanced west. This is all down to a very strong and determined work ethic and their technological aptitude. They place very high emphasis on education and with a comparatively small defence allocation (1% GDP) they have one of the most technologically advanced economies in the world. Japan enjoyed real economic growth for three decades with a 10% average in the 1960s, 5% in the 1970s and 4% in the 1980s. However, growth slowed markedly in the 1990s to an average of 1. 7% due largely to inefficient investment and an asset price bubble in the late 1980s. In March 2011, Japan was hit with their strongest-ever earthquake, and a subsequent tsunami, which caused major devastation, killing thousands and damaging several nuclear power plants. The catastrophe disrupted the countrys economy and its energy infrastructure, and severely strained its capacity to deal with the humanitarian disaster (https://www. cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ja. html). The UK was the first nation to industrialise by the mid nineteenth century she was considered the most advanced economy in the world. The British industrial revolution was founded on the basis of the market or capitalist economy. Adam smith is the father of the capitalist economy, he identified some key features of this system in his book â€Å"The Wealth of Nations† 1776, the features were: private ownership of resources; the price mechanism allocating scarce resources; laissez faire; competition; profit motive; and consumer sovereignty the Prior to 1979 the British approach to macroeconomic policies was very Keynesian. Britain joined the European Rate Mechanism (ERM) of the European Monetary System (EMS) which meant that the British pound was tied to the EU exchange rate (Woodward, 2004). Britain’s financial policies were influenced by the collapse in oil prices during the early part of 1986. This meant that the level of tax revenue was reduced and the government was forced to delay any major reductions in income taxation. The collapse meant that government could only manage a 1 percent reduction in the basic rate (Woodward, 2004). 992 saw the end of Britain’s membership of the ERM which also brought about a major recession, affecting those who had benefited from the economic boom of the 1980s. Thatcherism saw the privatisation of many state owned entities, including British Airways, British Telecom and British Gas amongst others. The global economic recession of 2009 saw Britain plunder into deep recession, which lead to rising inflation and unemployment. Current economic situation Japan’s economy is sustained by its highly educated and well motivated labour force (Rosser and Rosser, 2004). For decades employers have guaranteed lifetime employment to their employees, hence the reason for Japan’s employment stability. This guarantee over the past few years, have been eroding because of dual pressure from global competition and changes in the demographic domestically (https://www. cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ja. html). Nakajima et al (2000) stated that Japan’s economic growth since the burst of the economic bubble in 1990 has been minimal, with an average GDP growth rate of less than 1 percent in the 1990’s. Rosser and Rosser (2004) pointed out that Japan was the first nation of non-European origin to industrialise and experience modern economic growth. Its slogan â€Å"Japanese spirit and Western ability† sums up Japan’s approach to economic development. They succeeded by maintaining the Japanese culture which inculcates a good work ethic with western technology. Japan’s fiscal policy has attracted attention because of the relatively low levels of government spending and taxation (Rosser and Rosser, 2004). Rosser and Rosser (2004) stated that many believe that Japan’s relatively low level of social transfer payments encourages savings and hard work. Japan’s economy like most of the developed economies has been in recovery after the global financial crisis of 2009 but the recent earthquake and tsunami has dealt a major blow to their economic growth and recovery. It is argued that Japan has run out of steam and its economic miracle is over. Japan seemed destined in the 1980s to take the number one spot as the world’s leading economy but given recent economic failures this seems highly unlikely in the foreseeable future. The UK economy enjoyed major improvement in its financial stability during the 1980s. However, there was a high price to pay as unemployment rose sharply in 1981 and 1982, with unemployment levels rising to over 3 million in 1983 and remaining above that level until mid 1987 (Sentance, 1998). In 2001-2002 the UK’s GDP growth slipped as the global downturn, the high value of the Pound Sterling and the bursting of the ‘new economy’ bubble hurt manufacturing and exports. Despite being one of Europe’s strongest economies the UK’s growth rate is 1. 6% and unemployment is 7. 9%, this is as a result of the most recent recession that started in the US in 2009, which hit all the major economies, more so the UK because of their close economic links to the US economy.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

An Overview of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

An Overview of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) NGO stands for non-governmental organization and its function can vary widely from service organizations to human-rights advocacy and relief groups. Defined as an international organization that is not founded by an international treaty by the United Nations, NGOs work to benefit communities from the local to international levels.   NGOs not only serve as checks-and-balances for government  and governmental watchdogs but are crucial cogs in wider governmental initiatives such as relief response to a natural disaster. Without NGOs long history of rallying communities and creating initiatives around the world, famine, poverty, and disease would be a much bigger issue for the world than it already is. The First NGO In 1945, the United Nations was first created to act as an intergovernmental agency - that is an agency that mediates between multiple governments. To allow certain international interests groups and non-state agencies to attend the meetings of these powers and ensure an appropriate checks-and-balances system was in place, the U.N. established the term to define them as characteristically non-government.   However, the first international non-government organizations, by this definition, dated back well into the 18th century. By 1904, there were over 1000 established NGOs in the world fighting internationally for everything from the liberation of women and slaves to disarmament.   Rapid globalization led to the quick expansion of the need for these non-government organizations as shared interests between nationalities often overlooked human and environmental rights in favor of profits and power. Recently, even oversight with U.N. initiatives has given rise to an increased need for founding more humanitarian NGOs in order to compensate for missed opportunities.   Types of NGOs Non-governmental organizations can be broken down into eight different types within two quantifiers: orientation and level of operation - which have further been delineated into quite an extensive list of acronyms. In a charitable orientation of an NGO, investors acting as parents - with little input from those benefitting - help initiate activities which meet the basic needs of the poor. Similarly, service orientation involves activities which send in a charitable person to provide family planning, health, and education services to those in need but require their participation in order to be effective.   Conversely, participatory orientation focuses on community involvement in solving their own problems by means of facilitating the planning and implementation of restoring and meeting the needs of that community. Going one step further, the final orientation, empowering orientation, directs activities that provide tools for communities to understand the socio-economic and political factors affecting them and how to utilize their resources to control their own lives.   Non-government organizations can also be broken down by their level of operation - from hyper-localized groups to international advocacy campaigns. In Community-Based Organizations (CBOs), the initiatives focus on smaller, local communities while in City-Wide Organizations (CWOs), organizations like chambers of commerce and coalitions for businesses band together to solve problems that affect entire cities. National NGOs (NGOs) like the YMCA and NRA focus on activism that benefits people across the country while International NGOs (INGOs) like Save the Children and the Rockefeller Foundation act on behalf of the entire world. These designations, along with several more-specific quantifiers, help international government organizations and local citizens alike determine the intent of these organizations. After all, not all NGOs are supporting good causes - fortunately, however, most are.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Journal Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Journal - Coursework Example While some people exhibited high level of self-management as a result of supportive workplace and family along with personal capabilities, there are others who showed psychological problems like denial and also were constrained by socio-economic problems. According to the authors, self-management is â€Å"hard work, and is enabled or constrained by economic, material and socio-cultural conditions within the family, workplace and community† (p.83). The study concluded that different factors influence the self-management of people ranging from personal capabilities at micro level, accessibility of healthcare services at meso level to socio-economic conditions at macro level. The importance of self-management for diabetes patients cannot be ignored. For its effectiveness, the need is that people remain aware of the negatives impacts of the disease along with knowledge about available healthcare resources. It is necessary that clinicians prepare the patients to deal with chronic disease on daily basis so that they can accordingly change their behavior for positive outcomes. One common issue associated with older adults is falls, and although this can be the result of multiple factors, Deborah Mayne, Nigel R. Stout and Terry J. Aspray (2010) in their article have studied the extent of the impact of diabetes and associated complications on falls of older patients. In UK, it has been estimated that 40 percent of older diabetic patients who are over 65 years suffer from falls every year, and in Scotland almost 86 percent of fractures occur due to falls. It has been further estimated that diabetic patients have 1.5 to 12 times more possibility of hip fracture than non-diabetic patients. According to the authors, orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a principle factor for falls, and this phenomenon is common among 10 percent of diabetic patients.

Paper on Language Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Paper on Language - Essay Example Another more recent definition of language is given by Michael Holiday. According to him: "Language is a range of possibilities, an open-ended set of options in behavior that are available to the individual in his existence as social man. The context of culture is the environment of any particular selection that is made from within them ... The context of culture defines the potential, the range of possibilities that are open. The actual choice among these possibilities takes place within a given context of situation." This definition is much more encompassing as it highlights that language is not just through the use of vocal or oral symbols but a range of possibilities. Man communicates through speech, writing, and still other means are introduced in this digital age. A human also engage in non-verbal communication through his actions and entire behavior. Holiday also asserts that language can only fully understood in the context of the culture of the speaker or his lexicon. Lexicon is defined as the "knowledge of that the speaker has about a language." This includes information about the form and meaning of the words and phrases, lexical categorization, the appropriate usage of words, relationship between words and phrases, and categories of words and phrases. b. Evaluate the key features of language. The understanding of language can be acquired by evaluating its key features (Design features of Language 2007). 1. Duality of patterning is a basic principle in human language. This feature of language provides an economic way for human beings to create an infinite set of linguistic units. It should be noted that the individual sounds comprising language is meaningless in themselves. Yet, these sounds can be combined together in other to become produce an infinite number of "meaningful utterances." 2. Displacement refers to the unique sense of time in human beings. As opposed to animals, humans have the ability to separate the past from the future and can talk about these time spheres. 3. Open-endedness describes the ability of humans to add new words to the current set of words. This is illustrated by the words which are coined according to our new experiences and innovations which augment, enhance, and even modify our language. 4. Arbitrariness refers to the lack of "natural or essential relationship" between to the words and the objects they refer to. This also highlights that the meaning of the words are constructed through social conventions. 5. Vocal-auditory channel is the feature of human language which sets it apart from animals. Human's communication is through the ears and the mouth and not through other channels like nose or eyes. c. Describe the four levels of language structure and processing. There are four levels of language structure and processing namely, grammar, logic, semantics, and general semantics. Grammar relations refer to the words to words relationship within a sentence without considering the relation of each sentence to another. Logic takes a step further by looking at the statement to statement relationships by evaluating subjects and predicates in an

Friday, October 18, 2019

Analysis of Domestic Violence Articles Using ANOVA Essay

Analysis of Domestic Violence Articles Using ANOVA - Essay Example The level of measurement of a variable determines what kinds of tools are appropriate in describing the variables. There are five levels of measurements of variables and these include nominal, ordinal, interval, dichotomous and ratio. The last two are often treated as either nominal or interval respectively (Healey, 2011). In this study, the variables were measured using the nominal and the ordinal categories. A number of methods of statistical data analysis are used and these include factor analysis, correlations analyses, ANOVA and multiple regression analyses. A total of four independent variables and fourteen independent variables were measured. (Kyu & Kanai, 2005) The research question for the study was â€Å"Is domestic violence more likely to happen to women who have been fooled into marriage without truly knowing the partner? The research established that 69% and 27% percent of women were reported experiencing psychological aggression and physical assault respectively. The results also showed that women who have been fooled into marriage without their knowledge experience minor physical assault, severe physical assault and minor psychological aggression. The findings, the researchers say can be used in creating programs that can be used to address the problem effectively in the city (Kyu & Kanai, 2005). The second journal article aimed to study how children are involved in adult domestic violence. The study thus aimed to examine a large number of factors in the family and the surrounding that may be able to explain the differences that are witnessed in children in terms of their responses to adult domestic violence. This study used demographic variables as the independent variables were recorded as ordinal. A total number of ten independent variables and four dependent variables were analyzed in the study (Edleson, Mbilinyi, Beeman, & Hagemeister, 2003).

Dividends Policy of Vodafone Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Dividends Policy of Vodafone - Assignment Example In addition, Dr. David Grundy aimed at introducing the main issues surrounding dividends, understanding the main concepts of dividend irrelevance and also evaluating the criticisms of M&M proposals. Corporate managers always consider the choice of dividend policy. They believe that firm value and the shareholders wealth may remain affected by decisions made on dividend policies (Baker 2009). Dividend policy is indispensable to investors because it supplies cash to firms with anticipation of eventually receiving money in return. An argument before Miller and Modigliani says that dividends are preferable to capital gains because of future gain uncertainty. Thus investors would rather have the money now than leave it tied up in uncertain investment. However, Miller and Modigliani concluded by saying that dividends are irrelevant in determining the firm value but most of the managers act as if their dividend policy is relevant (Baker, 2009). In spite of dividend policy decisions being concluded to be irrelevant, they play a big role in achieving firm value maximization. It’s true that dividends affect the value of firm shares. Nevertheless, investors prefer dividends since the dividend policy influence the MV of the company. For example, if the company pays low dividends, most probably the investors will sell those shares and buy in a company that will pay more dividends. Thus the share price would go down for the company that did not pay dividends. In short, high dividends may indicate a lack of attractive investments, and thus lower future investments returns. Likewise low dividends may indicate many attractive investments and thus better future prospects. Although market tends to be short-sighted. However, certain investors have preferences based on their income tax position. Income tax is at 10 percent, 23 percent and 40 percent while capital gains are taxed at 35 percent. This leads investors at a

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Criminal Justice Masters Program Comprehensive Exam Essay

Criminal Justice Masters Program Comprehensive Exam - Essay Example It is also otherwise referred to as ownership or proprietas (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012). This indicates that even in the earliest versions of law in the West, it is recognized that a person has the right to protect and defend his dominium – his family, his property, and his well-being – from external aggression that harms or threatens to harm it. The right of self-defense is claimed by the aggressor or defendant charged with a violent crime. Some of these crimes include: battery (striking someone against his or her will), assault with a deadly weapon, assault with intent to commit serious bodily injury, manslaughter, and first or second degree murder (Bergman & Berman, 2009, p. 314). Self-defense is a justifying circumstance. It is an affirmative defense in that it justifies the use or threat of force exerted by an individual when he or she believes that there is a danger of an imminent, immediate, and unlawful infliction of serious bodily harm or death (Lippman, 20 10, p. 216). A criminal act, such as a homicide, is justified when it is resorted to in order to prevent a greater, imminent, and immediate harm, when there are no other equally effective alternatives possible. The court quoted: â€Å"all homicide is malicious, and of course, amounts to murder, unless†¦ justified by the command or permission of the law; excused on the account of accident or self-preservation; or alleviated into manslaughter, by being the involuntary consequence of some act not strictly lawful or (if voluntary) occasioned by some sudden and sufficiently violent provocation† (Blackstone, 1854, p. 201 in U.S. v Peterson, par. 14). In the modern application of the law, much of Blackstone’s commentaries are still relevant, although jurisprudence has enumerated the requisites that support a claim of self-defense. These are that the defendant: (1) must not have provoked or been the aggressor in the assault; (2) must have reasonable grounds for the belief that he is faced with imminent danger of serious bodily injury; (3) must not use more force than that which appears reasonably necessary; and (4) must do everything in his power consistent with his own safety to avoid the danger and must retreat if retreat is practicable (Lippman, 2010, p. 222). A special case when self-defense cannot be resorted to as a defense is when the accused invoking it is the very person who instigated or provoked the aggressive act. What this exactly means can only be explained by a perusal of case law where the principle was applied with varying premises and results. Case Law: United States v. Thomas, 34 F2. 44 (1994, 2nd Cir) The case concerned the fatal shooting of Wallie Howard, a Syracuse police officer who worked undercover for the Federal Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) during a â€Å"buy-bust† operation on 30 October 1990. In this instance, the suspected cocaine dealers decided to likewise rob Howard, who was seated in the front passen ger seat of a car. The perpetrators, Stewart and Lawrence, were each armed with .22 and .357 revolvers. Stewart tried to shoot Howard but failed because there was no bullet in the chamber. Howard gets off a shot and hits Stewart in the shoulder. Lawrence, standing at the rear passenger side of the car, shot at Howard, striking the rear of his head and instantly killing him. The two were arrested minutes later. The defendants, Lawrence and Stewart, claimed self-defense in that Howard was the first to draw his gun, and Lawrence believed that Howard

Discovery of America and the Scientific Revolution in Europe Essay

Discovery of America and the Scientific Revolution in Europe - Essay Example While Columbus could not have been the first European to discover the â€Å"New World† and did not actually reach the mainland until 1498, his discovery greatly contributed to extensive knowledge on the â€Å"New World† for the first time in history3. The scientific revolution refers to the emergence of the modern science during the time of early modern period when development in physics, mathematics, biology, astronomy, chemistry, and human anatomy transformed the views of nature and society4. Before the discovery of this â€Å"New World†, there was widespread belief that people living in such places were not normal. The Romans, in particular, held a belief that people who were living in northern Africa were monsters, and abnormal. Such beliefs went on into the medieval era5. The discovery of the â€Å"New World† by Columbus assisted a great deal in removing this ignorance and superstitions. Further, this discovery made Europeans be more interested in discovering the physical world. The relation with nature changed and it had to be controlled in order to have the desired effect. This was actually the beginning of scientific revolution6. Alongside these developments, there was also cultural and political change that occurred in Spain and the rest of Europe as result of exploration and extension of the overseas empires. The early modern period saw a tremendous rise in European engagement with and knowledge of the â€Å"outside world†. This paper discussed the relationship between the discovery of America and the rise of a scientific revolution in Spain and subsequently to Europe. The Columbian explorations in the New World led to the development of the new transportation technologies that could facilitate navigation and other forms of transportation between Spain and the New World7. European explorers improved the new transport technologies that were developed by Spain. These explorers gathered from the â€Å"New World† information  concerning the culture of the local people, and people who were not previously known.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Criminal Justice Masters Program Comprehensive Exam Essay

Criminal Justice Masters Program Comprehensive Exam - Essay Example It is also otherwise referred to as ownership or proprietas (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012). This indicates that even in the earliest versions of law in the West, it is recognized that a person has the right to protect and defend his dominium – his family, his property, and his well-being – from external aggression that harms or threatens to harm it. The right of self-defense is claimed by the aggressor or defendant charged with a violent crime. Some of these crimes include: battery (striking someone against his or her will), assault with a deadly weapon, assault with intent to commit serious bodily injury, manslaughter, and first or second degree murder (Bergman & Berman, 2009, p. 314). Self-defense is a justifying circumstance. It is an affirmative defense in that it justifies the use or threat of force exerted by an individual when he or she believes that there is a danger of an imminent, immediate, and unlawful infliction of serious bodily harm or death (Lippman, 20 10, p. 216). A criminal act, such as a homicide, is justified when it is resorted to in order to prevent a greater, imminent, and immediate harm, when there are no other equally effective alternatives possible. The court quoted: â€Å"all homicide is malicious, and of course, amounts to murder, unless†¦ justified by the command or permission of the law; excused on the account of accident or self-preservation; or alleviated into manslaughter, by being the involuntary consequence of some act not strictly lawful or (if voluntary) occasioned by some sudden and sufficiently violent provocation† (Blackstone, 1854, p. 201 in U.S. v Peterson, par. 14). In the modern application of the law, much of Blackstone’s commentaries are still relevant, although jurisprudence has enumerated the requisites that support a claim of self-defense. These are that the defendant: (1) must not have provoked or been the aggressor in the assault; (2) must have reasonable grounds for the belief that he is faced with imminent danger of serious bodily injury; (3) must not use more force than that which appears reasonably necessary; and (4) must do everything in his power consistent with his own safety to avoid the danger and must retreat if retreat is practicable (Lippman, 2010, p. 222). A special case when self-defense cannot be resorted to as a defense is when the accused invoking it is the very person who instigated or provoked the aggressive act. What this exactly means can only be explained by a perusal of case law where the principle was applied with varying premises and results. Case Law: United States v. Thomas, 34 F2. 44 (1994, 2nd Cir) The case concerned the fatal shooting of Wallie Howard, a Syracuse police officer who worked undercover for the Federal Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) during a â€Å"buy-bust† operation on 30 October 1990. In this instance, the suspected cocaine dealers decided to likewise rob Howard, who was seated in the front passen ger seat of a car. The perpetrators, Stewart and Lawrence, were each armed with .22 and .357 revolvers. Stewart tried to shoot Howard but failed because there was no bullet in the chamber. Howard gets off a shot and hits Stewart in the shoulder. Lawrence, standing at the rear passenger side of the car, shot at Howard, striking the rear of his head and instantly killing him. The two were arrested minutes later. The defendants, Lawrence and Stewart, claimed self-defense in that Howard was the first to draw his gun, and Lawrence believed that Howard

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

PHYSICS (SOLUTIONS) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

PHYSICS (SOLUTIONS) - Essay Example 100Pa). Here, it is essential that the pressure decreases exponentially, i.e. without local minimums and maximums (with the exception of atmospheric fluctuations); so, our criterion mb is valid. Roughly, from the graph attached we can localize km, say, km. e) Let us analyze the pressure curve . It is necessary to note that values of altitude are in log-scale. Nevertheless, even in linear scale dependence is non linear; see ('Atmospheric pressure' 2008) and (Ahren 2000). This can be explained by 'exponential atmosphere' model. This is very rough model for a column of gas extending to a great height; see details in (Feynman et al 1964). Such gas column is supposed to be at thermal equilibrium without any disturbances, so in the model. Model gives an obvious relationship where is the mass of the gas molecule (supposed to be constant in the model), is the acceleration due to gravity, and is the total number of the gas molecules in the unit section of a gas column. Solution of this relationship is ; here . So, the pressure exponentially decreases with increasing of altitude. Such decreasing depends upon the mass of gas molecule: the pressure of lightweight gases (e.g. hydrogen) decreases more slowly with altitude then the pressure of heavy -weight gases (e.g. oxygen). Here, and are weights of a ball... oxygen). Task 2 This task can be solved using Archimedes' principle. Let us make schematic illustration for a helium balloon and all the forces applied to it: Here, and are weights of a balloon and helium inside it, is the net force of buoyancy (for both balloon and helium inside). In accordance with Archimedes' principle, or the law of upthrust, a balloon is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the displaced air. A balloon is in state of rest when resulting force equals to zero, i.e. when . a) A balloon is assumed to be a sphere with a diameter of 20cm, so m. Hence, its volume is , or m3, or roughly litres (because 1 litre equals to m3). b) Let us estimate the mass of helium in the balloon. Let us suppose that helium is an ideal gas at and atmosphere. The ideal gas law gives volume occupied by a mole of an ideal gas: litres; here is universal gas constant (Feynman et al 1964). Therefore, the balloon contains moles of helium. The relative atomic mass of helium is 4, so a mole of helium weights 4 grams. Hence, helium in the balloon weights approx. grams. c) Using the graph attached for the task 1, namely dependence , let us define where km. Roughly, mb, say, mb or atmosphere. Let us estimate density of the air at the altitude km. For exponential model of atmosphere we have ; see (Feynman et al 1964). The ideal gas law or allows us to make estimations in terms of air density ; here grams per mole is the mean molar mass of air. For isothermal atmosphere () , so . Then, , so . Let us compute , the density of air at sea level: grams per litre. Let us estimate , the density of the air at the altitude km: or grams per litre. d) It is necessary to note that almost all numeric

Monday, October 14, 2019

Japanese Business Culture Essay Example for Free

Japanese Business Culture Essay What do you do to prepare for this meeting? In order to prepare for this meeting, apart from the usual prepaparation with regards to presentations, brochures and other information material, information about the product as well as the company, etc, I need to gather extensive information about the Japanese business culture as the peculiar characteristics of this particular trading company with whom we are meeting. It is extremely important in international business that one should pay attention to prevailing business culture, customs and peculiarities of the companies from other countries in order to conclude a successful business deal. Therefore, I need to peep into material describing the Japanese way of doing businesses, their negotiation styles, things which one should avoid during the meetings, etc. What do you want to know about the trading company? The first thing which I would like to know about the trading company is its similarity to the traditional Japanese companies which possess certain typical characteristics. For example, one of the important things to know about this trading firm will be whether it is part of Japanese Keiretsu or not. The knowledge of this information in advance will help me to identify key features of Japanese trading firms who are still part of the large groups or Keiretsu. Knowledge about few characteristics of the firm will help us to present ourselves in a more comfortable manner at deal stage. I am presenting below few important characteristics of Japanese firms: 1) Connections are very helpful in this country, but choose your intermediaries carefully: the Japanese will feel obliged to be loyal to them. Select someone of the same rank as the person with whom he or she will have dealings. Moreover, an intermediary should not be part of either company involved with the deal. 2) If you know a highly respected, important person in Japan, use his or her endorsement and connection. Before you enter into negotiations, request a consultation, and then ask if you can use the endorsement and connection to further your business efforts. This method of using connections is standard practice among Japanese businesspeople. 3)Generally, the Japanese are not receptive to outside information. They will consider new ideas and concepts only within the confines of their own groups. 4)The Japanese tend to think subjectively, relying on feelings rather than empirical evidence. 5)Getting acquainted is the purpose of the initial meetings. You may, however, introduce your proposal during these preliminary discussions. During presentations, and especially during negotiations, it is essential that one maintain a quiet, low-key, and polite manner at all times. The highest-ranking individual may appear to be the most quiet of everyone present. For a persuasive presentation, you must describe how your product can enhance the prosperity and reputation of the Japanese side. Making these claims effectively requires a thorough knowledge of Japanese economy, business, and product lines. The Japanese will commit themselves to an oral agreement, which may be acknowledged by a nod or slight bow, rather than by shaking hands. Contracts can be renegotiated; in Japanese business protocol, they are not final agreements. After gathering knowledge about these typical characteristics of Japanese firms, we will try to compare this particular firm with these characteristics by analyzing the available information. Â  source: Comment to student: click on the link above. You will find many links on this page with respect to business culture in Japan. The Japanese have been raised to think of themselves as part of a group, and their group is always dealing with other groups. This is viewed on many angles internationally it is We Japanese vs. everyone else (more on that later), but in schools, companies, sections of companies etc. there are many groups and sub-groups and not always in perfect harmony and cooperation as it may look on the surface. Dealing with Japanese on a one-to-one basis usually comes very easy to non-Japanese, but dealing with Japanese as a group can be a different matter altogether. source: about the V.P. and his/her delegation? There are certain things which we need to know about the VP and his delegation. The strong hierarchical structure in Japanese business is reflected in the negotiation process. They begin at the executive level and continue at the middle level. However, decisions will often be made within the group. Generally speaking, in business meetings the Japanese will line up in order of seniority, with the most senior person at the front and the least senior person closest to the door. In addition to this rule however, you may find that the most senior person chooses where to sit. It is important to bear in mind that in contemporary Japan, even a low ranking individual can become a manager if his or her performance is good. (source: ) Further, it is important to know few personal information about the visiting team. For example, their level of proficiency with English, whether or not a translator will be required, the age as it is directly related to seniority in Japanese culture, whether they have travelled abroad to US or other Western Countries before because it may have serious implications with respect to few culturally sensitive issues such as some Japanese men who have not been abroad are not used to dealing with women as equals in a business setting. ..about their inquiry? The foremost thing about their inquiry which I will like to know is the nature of relationship they are looking to establish with our company with respect to selling our products in Japan. For example, are they looking for some kind of manufacturing joint venture in Japan, or are they looking to take distributorship or license for our products. Such information will help us to present ourselves in a better and precise manner and will help us in coming to common ground with them. One of the sources for finding such information will be the local Santa Clara office of the company. Further, internet can prove to be a useful source for finding more information about the company such as its web portal, its partners and vendor relationships as displayed over the website, press releases and third party comments available on the web, etc. When starting business in Japan and entering into initial distributor contract negotiation, many foreign executives are probably unaware of the potential value of their products in Japan, but you can guarantee that the Japanese distributors on the other side of the negotiation will have a very good idea of the value. source: If you are doing business in Japan with a Japanese distributor, then you absolutely must negotiate a strong agreement before starting in the Japanese market. Â  Another issue to be aware of, and which if uncontrolled will have a significant impact on the final percentage of revenue you receive, is that the Japanese market is awash with multi-layered distribution channels. Your Japanese distributor may in fact be a master distributor who will pass your products through one or more layers of sub-distributors prior to it reaching its intended consumer or corporate buyer destination. In some situations its unavoidable for example, if your distributor sells to a large Japanese company you can expect that the customer will mandate a trading company (usually one of its subsidiaries) to handle the purchase and take a 5% 15% fee for its efforts. source: What do you want to highlight in the meeting with the V.P.? As discussed in the above paragraphs, it is very important in Japanese business negotiations with a distributor to explain to them the potential value of our products in Japan. It is important to present them with some revenue forecasts with respect to sales in Japan. First, you must know the Japanese value, not the US, UK, German, French or Italian value but the Japanese value of your product or service before you can negotiate a win-win relationship with a Japanese distributor. If you spent your first month doing business in Japan aggressively networking and information gathering you should have a pretty good idea of your products value. By comparing with your home market statistics you should also be able to extrapolate some reasonable revenue forecasts: idealized of course but an invaluable benchmark for contract negotiation with a Japanese distributor. Armed with the results of your first months Japanese business analysis, you stand a good chance of convincing a reputable distributor that they should put your product into their lead portfolio and invest in aggressively promoting it. Your ability to assert the potential Japanese value of your product and your ability to defend that value will support your justifiable contract negotiation claims to require transfer fees calculated on net revenues, not on your home market price list. The result is that you have a chance to get the best possible distribution deal for your company and a deal that could only ever be bettered by a direct entry into the Japanese market using a Japanese subsidiary company or office. source: If things look positive in that meeting, what would you expect to happen at the next stages of the discussions? Â  Even if the things look positive in that meeting, Japanese generally take time time finalize their decision as the decision making process can be very slow for Japanese firms. I expect the Japanese trading firm to extensively discuss the issue within their group in order to arrive at the final decision. From the pre-meetings, to the informal parties, the Japanese style of doing business will take the shape of an intricate spiders web, where few outsiders can fully understand the implications of what exactly is occurring. Japanese culture effects every aspect of daily life. The cultural tradition of Japan reflects a strong desire to be harmonious, efficient, and most important, to promote group solidarity, and this is best achieved by making decisions based on consensus. Robert Marshall elaborates by saying that, group decision making in Japan promotes unanimity in result through consensus {Marshall},[p. 7]. source: Comment to student: The above mentioned link is an excellent article on group decision making in Japan. Please read through it to gather more information on decision making in Japanese culture. How are your actions in this situation different from the situation in which you make the first move in order to find a licensee? The actions in this situation is different from my first move because I have a more informed and better view along with a clear understanding of the Japanese business culture and negotiation process now. My first move was a sort of unorganized effort to explore the Japanese markets. This situation is different in the sense that I am now preparing myself for specific company which has already shown little interest in our products and are ready to explore more about our company. It is very important to have clear understanding of Japanese culture, prevailign market conditions, information about the industry and knowledge of other peculiar characteristics before one can enter into a successful negotiation with a Japanese company. My initial failures have made me realize that in order to successfully conclude a deal with a Japanese company, one needs to present him in a manner that proves the value of our product with respect to Japanese market.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Polymorphism In Object Oriented Design Information Technology Essay

Polymorphism In Object Oriented Design Information Technology Essay In large scale organizations measuring software quality is complex for the development of software product. High quality software would enhance the potential reuse of the software and reduce the software maintenance cost. Many of the presently available software metrics are applicable when the particular software product Polymorphism has been assured to improve reusability technique which is achieved through the POF, Polymorphism factor derived from the MOOD (Metrics for Object oriented design) metric. II BACKGROUND Software metrics are considered as key facts or ways to measure any kind of software product from the starting phase to the obsolete phase. These software metrics are available and used throughout the project to assess the software quality, cost estimation and time consuming to develop a software project. It is declared that the Traditional metrics are not applicable to Object Oriented design since Object Oriented Software metrics are applicable to class level and other characteristics such as abstraction, inheritance, modularity and Polymorphism. These metrics convey the software engineer how the modifications can be made in order to reduce the cost effectively and time consuming while designing software and to improve the quality, continuing capability and profitability of the software. In [7] nearly 100 metrics had already given to find out the complexity of the software code and in [8] they were more than 150 metrics are proposed in the field of Object oriented paradigm. The Object Oriented software metrics are differentiated into two types namely Static and Dynamic. Dynamic and Static code analysis are done during source code reviews. Static metrics are derived from the measurement on static analysis of the software code. Static code analysis is performed without executing any of the code. Static analysis is better to understand the security problems within the program code and can easily identify nearly 85% of the flaws in the programming code. Dynamic metrics are derived from the measurement on dynamic analysis of the software code. Dynamic analysis is based on the studying of the code behavior during execution. Earlier major work was focused on static metrics but more attention has given to Dynamic metrics as the results are derived at run time. In this binding it can be substitute to forms or objects that are related to polymorphism factor at the time of execution. III FORMS OF POLYMORPHISM Polymorphism is considered as one of the salient features of Object oriented Programming languages. This feature mainly deals with reusability technique. In object oriented analysis Polymorphism roots from message passing, substitutability and inheritance which yields to is-a relationship. This similarity may allow achieving variety of technologies like code sharing and reusability. Mainly Polymorphism is differentiated into 5 types in Object Oriented paradigm like generics, pure polymorphism, overloading, deferred methods and overriding, Both Polymorphic classes and methods are known as Generics. This paper mainly focuses on three definitions mainly Overloading, Overriding and pure polymorphism. Pure polymorphism is achieved by implementing same function to different types of arguments. Method overriding is possible when the implementation suggested in the super class is modified in the sub class. Next to that method overloading is achieved when different methods having same name. Method overloading is also known as Adhoc Polymorphism. The differentiation on Polymorphic behaviors in C++ are related to runtime binding decisions which are overriding methods or virtual functions and compile time linked decisions which are over loading functions. From this design polymorphic functions are categorize into different types. The Polymorphic member functions can formerly defined as where in a new declaration these characteristics may alter while the other remains the same. This will generate different types of Polymorphic implementations that affect the quality on Object Oriented paradigm. A) Pure Polymorphism This behavior is also known as parametric overloading where it can be identified similar name with different signature which is inside the class scope. This behavior inside a class scope is identified by implementing more functions with other signatures. B) Static Polymorphism In Object Oriented design methods related to similar name but with other method signature can be identified in other classes related and which are unlinked by inheritance relationships, which is also known as Overriding behavior. In C++ they can be categorized overriding methods into two different forms like virtual and non-virtual methods. The non -virtual overriding functions can be identified by other signatures which are related to other declarations. As they are based on Static binding can be called this from static Polymorphism. C) Dynamic Polymorphism This behavior has the capability to use the similar name with similar signature in an overriding function. In C++ it is called as adhoc polymorphism as it invokes run time decisions at execution by the compiler. Combination and Specialization are the two features derived from the Object Oriented design which results Dynamic and Static Polymorphism. The polymorphism forms discussed above consists single perspective where each pattern may be identified and combined to achieve class inheritance relationships. Fig 1. Simple Inheritance. Simple Inheritance states that one Parent can have many children, but each child can only have one Parent. Fig 1 illustrates that A is a Parent, B and C are Children to Parent A. Likewise P and Q are children to Parent B and M and N are children to Parent C Table 1 shows the derived set of metrics where it can be taken as the combination of dynamic and static polymorphism forms with respective to the simple inheritance relationship [2]. IV POLYMORPHISM FORMS METRICS Metrics Definition SPD Static Polymorphism in Descendants. DPA Dynamic Polymorphism in Ancestors DPD Dynamic Polymorphism in Descendants SPA Static Polymorphism in Ancestors. OVO Overloading in Standalone classes Table 1 In Object Orientation paradigm, generic methods and classes are able to decrease the description of newly created objects and classes. The OVO (Overloading in Stand-alone classes) metric is designed to calculate the intensity of method genericity in a class scope by numbering and calculating the function members which designed the same function. The Static and Dynamic metrics are designed to calculate each Static and Dynamic binding separately in Object oriented paradigm. Example 1 Class P { void a (int k); void a (float l); void a (int i , int l); void b (); void b (int n); } Class Q : public P { void a (); } Class R : public Q { void a (); void b(); } Class S { void a (); } A) Data Validation In order to validate Polymorphism metrics, product metric validation methodology is very useful to validate other suits of Object Oriented design metrics. This validation represents the capability of polymorphism metrics to predict the fault prone functions. Here the data is gathered from an open multi-agent systems development environment, known as LALO. [2] LALO has been maintaining its development since from 1993 at CRIM (Computer Research Institute for Montreal) where it approximately includes 40k source lines of code and 85 C++ classes. Here the analysis has been obtained from the Source Lines of Code, information about its classes and fault related data. B) Descriptive Statistics Table 2 shows the analysis for descriptive statistics which are related to Polymorphism metrics. Due to the reason that LALO objects contains very low and minor inheritance depth and week variance has been calculated from the descendants of polymorphism namely SPD and DPD. Here it is confirmed that week distribution of polymorphic forms is due to low usage of inheritance in LALO classes. Metric Max Min Mean Median StdDev OVO 15.00 0.00 3.47 3 2.71 SPA 18.00 0.00 3.54 1 4.63 SPD 111.00 0.00 3.73 0 13.87 DPA 5.00 0.00 0.73 0 1.29 DPD 28.00 0.00 0.77 0 3.35 SP 111.00 0.00 7.28 3.5 13.90 DP 28.00 0.00 1.50 0 3.49 Table 2 C) Polymorphism metrics and MOOD metrics Table 3 shows the correlation among the five polymorphism metrics and POF (Polymorphism factor) measurement derived from the MOOD (Metrics for Object oriented Design) metrics [6]. As per the analysis the POF from the MOOD metrics, SPA and DPA metrics from the Polymorphism metrics are maximum correlated as they captured the same forms of polymorphism namely overriding. OVO, SPD, DPD and POF have very poor correlation. OVO SP DP SPA SPD DPA DPD Pof .06 .50 .42 .98 .02 .72 .00 Table 3 D) Correlation between Polymorphism metrics. SPA and DPA calculates the count of member functions that are overridden between a class scope and its ancestors. This states that dynamic polymorphism and static polymorphism have similar quality impact in ancestors relationship. Since DP and SP are counted from the metrics SPA, DPD, DPA and SPD where DPA and SPA are nearly correlated and DPD and SPD calculations are not statically specified in the dataset and the expectations are SP would be maximum correlated with DP. SPA SPD DPA DPD SP DP OVO .06 .05 .04 .07 0 0 SPA 1.0 .03 .71 .00 .51 .42 SPD 1.0 .01 .67 .27 .13 DPA 1.0 .00 .43 .63 DPD 1.0 .22 .29 SP 1.0 .70 Table 4 F) Relation between Polymorphism metrics and Chidamber and Kemerer metrics. Here is the comparison between Chidamber and Kemerer (CK) metrics and Polymorphism metrics [9]. The six CK metrics are RFC Response for a Class. DIT Class Depth Inheritance Tree. CBO Coupling between Class. WMC Weighted Method per Class. NOC Number of Children. LCOM Lack of Cohesion among methods. a) DIT DIT is used to calculate maximum tree depth from class to root class. The high DIT has been found to lead more faults. However, more the tree depth, more the reusability factor because of method inheritance. Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig2 resembles simple inheritance where each parent can have more than one child but each child must have only one parent. In Fig3 P and Q are combined and inherited from Parent A and Fig4 shows high DIT as it illustrates high tree depth inheritance. b) NOC NOC counts the immediate sub-classes of a root class. As maximum DIT indicates the high tree depth, NOC counts the breath of the class hierarchy. High NOC increases the number of child classes, high reuse of the Base class is possible. High NOC has been found to lead low number of faults because of high reuse of Base class which is more desirable. Table 4 shows the values to compare only two CK metric represents a relation with two polymorphic metrics [2]. The highly related pair of metrics is NOC-SPD. Also the highly correlated metrics is DIT-SPA where these two relations are highly expected. Table4 Children in the classes are counted by NOC metric. Level of coupling is measured by SPD metric due to static Polymorphism having its descendants. Due to static polymorphism chances of having coupling is higher as greater the number of children. Inheritance depth tree is calculated in a class by using DIT metric. As per the static polymorphism, level of coupling with class R in Example 1 and its ancestors is measured by metric SPA. While measuring different forms of class dependencies in Polymorphism, it is observed that CBO represents a very low correlation with polymorphism metric which is calculating algorithm class coupling. Hence it is confirmed that the polymorphism metrics can get variety of variations of class scope coupling which are not highly captured by CBO metric [2]. A backward and forward logistic regression is performed while examine the relationship between CK metrics and Polymorphism metrics [2]. By combining these two Object oriented metrics a significant methodology related to fault prone class has been implemented. V REUSE, REUSEABILITY METRICS IN POLYMORPHISM As I discussed earlier, Reusability is the key concept to achieve Polymorphism, following are the metrics discussed under the concern of Reusability [1]. The key factor of developing and upgrading software by using the existing software has made our Engineers to focus more on systematic re-use where the organizations can make most benefit and get extensive advantage from the idea of reusability. A) Reuse and Reusability Metrics Reuse metric is obtained from number of efforts that takes place in the research area on economics of reuse. If the return on investment is positive then it can be analyzed that reuse is beneficial. It consists of maintaining the cost for reusing the libraries, modifying costs and reusable maintenance from the existing property, cost of searching, evaluating, identifying, integrating and selecting the potential articrafts. Different economic metrics has been introduced to measure the reuse metric which implements the cost benefit ratio. Durek and Gaffneys reuse metric based on economic factor is proposed and useful to measure the break -even point and the reusability cost. COCOMO based reuse model is used to calculate the total time that takes to implement the software with the functionality of reuse which is proposed by Gustafson and Balda [1]. Durek and Gaffneys reuse economic metric is represented as C= (b+E/n-1) R+1 Where C = Cost related to Software Development, usually less than 1. R = ratio of the reused code in the project. E = Cost to make code reusable, which is cost related to new code which is used to develop a component for reuse. B = reusing existing code in the project where the cost related to new code like adaption, searching and adaption cost. n=the number of reuses expected. As our interest is ultimately in measuring the cost but these metric needs the cost of creating the reused articrafts as input. B) Reuse Metric Level This reuse level metric is introduced by Frakes which implements threshold levels to gather and remove the items which are not reused very often. Suppose if the threshold level is 4 the object should be called 5 times for reuse. This metric also varies between the external and internal level. Total reuse level=Internal + External level. External reuse level=EU/T and Internal reuse level=IU/T. T=both internal and external items in the system. IU=number of reused external items EU=number of reused internal items. Each reused item which is EU and IU must have the values either 0 or 1.If the threshold level is less than the item reused then the value is always 1 or else it will be 0.This measure does not consider the number of items reused. Here this metric uses item instead of SLOC, as each item varies, some item would be large or small when compare to other items. In the later version of this metric, depending upon the size of the item, assigned a weight to each item. This is done because the threshold levels should be same in order to compare the projects. C) Measuring Polymorphism As the process would vary from execution to execution, the problem is with while measuring polymorphism, exactly what happens within an application. Example 2 List l; If(condition){ l=new ArrayList(); } else l=new Linked List(); l.add(); In Example 2, the Linked List implementation and the Array List implementation depends on the external condition. There is no prediction that the condition is always satisfied, with the implementation of the polymorphism. Dynamic analysis is the right way to measure polymorphism as it gathers the information at run time. Following is the metric that defines the amount of polymorphism has occurred [1]. PBI=UPD/Total Dispatches. Where PBI=Polymorphic Behavior Index. TD=UPD+NP. UPD= Polymorphic Dispatches that are unique NP=Non-polymorphic dispatches that are unique. TD=Total Dispatches. In the above example, List l=new Array List (); The List interface will declare the variable l and it is said to be Declared Interface. If the condition is true. Then Array List () is the Dispatched class in this Example. Both the Class and Interface are different and the relationship can be given as Conforms and implements. An interface might not directly implement by a class, it can be accessible through parent class. The actual method which is processed is the deepest inherited implementation of the method. Example 3 Class A{ void method 1(){} } Class B extends A{ B b=new B(); b.method1(); } The b.method1 () is dispatched to A.method1 () because it is the deepest inherited implementation method. Polymorphic Dispatch will be observed when the Dispatched Class and declared interface, both are different. Non -Polymorphic Dispatch is observed when the Dispatched Class is same as the declared interface. Example.4 Interface P{ a (); } Class Sample inherits P{ a();{} b();{} } Class Sample2 extends Sample{ b();{ super(); } } When Sample sp=new Sample(); sp.a(); The sp variable relates to a Sample object. The Sample class consists method a() implementation, so Sample.a() will be dispatched. The Dispatch class, Sample is same as the declared interface, so this is considered to be a Non-Polymorphic dispatch. Sample2 sp2=new Sample2 (); sp2.a(); Since sp2 relates to an object of type Sample2 the dispatched method is Sample a ().Although Sample2 not requires a method a() implementation ,Sample.a() is the deepest inherited implementation method. Sample is the class that is dispatched here. This is Polymorphic dispatch as the Dispatched class is Sample and declared interface is Sample 2. P sp3=new sample(); sp3.a(); Here in this case, since Sample.a() is dispatched, the Dispatched class is Sample and Declared interface is P . As Dispatched class Sample and Declared interface P both are different this is Polymorphic Dispatch. D) Inherited Method Call using Inherited Class. Sample sp4= new Sample2(); sp4.a(); Here the dispatched method is Sample. a () while declared interface of sp4 is Sample. So this is considered to be a Non polymorphic dispatch as both the declared interface and Dispatch class is same, Sample. Sample sp5=new Sample2(); sp5.b(); Here sp5 implements the inherited method b() from Sample2. Sample2.b() overrides the Samples b() and this inheritance substitutes the functionality from the Samples b() method, Here, dispatched method is Sample2.b() as it is the deepest implementation method . Hence it is known as Polymorphic dispatch as the Dispatch class is Sample2 and declared interface is Sample means both are different. ` VI INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL REUSE Software reuse is often differentiated as External reuse and internal reuse. Considering internal reuse, these are the calls made to the desired code that is previously mentioned for the given application. External reuse is considered when calling the code that is coming from external source to the application of the project. When comparing both the internal and external reuse, external is more beneficial than internal.But both internal and external reuse are been used, for instance if the developer reusing the same method rather than developing new methods which performs the same action. Internal methods are created by the application developers, which are defined as methods. Internal methods also include implementing the custom code extending the API and the API interface. When any method calls an internal method then internal method call is generated. Generally it happens internal methods calling to internal methods. Sometimes API will call these internal methods when these methods are passed as handlers into the API.As this external method to internal method calling is a strategy of application developers decision, these are still considered as an internal method call. External methods are obtained from external source where developers cannot modify it, which includes external libraries and API. Suppose if internal method calling an external method then call to the external method is generated. Here it must not be considered external to external method calling. Example 5 Class sample extends java.lang.Thread { void method p () { method q (); } void method q (String s) { System.out.println (This is an Example); } public void run () { method p (); } public static void main(String args[]) { this .start() } In Example 5 when the Sample class is executed, Java launcher calls the main () method. As the Sample class extends thread class and calling the start () function will insert the Thread class in Java Scheduler. As a consequence Java scheduler calls run () method, where the run () calls the method p (), which in turns calls the method q().method q() internally calls the System.out.println(). For instance when System.out.println () is executed, many internal API callings will happen like PrintWriter called by String Buffer. However these are not considered as external or internal method calls. VII TOOLS FOR SOFTWARE METRICS Fig 5 Process for Dynamic Metrics A) E-MTRACE The process of evaluating the Polymorphism metric is the comparison held in same domain of Polymorphism with two software applications, where it is manually determined by the source code to examine their reusability and reuse issues of performance. In order to avoid or remove unnecessary values like system method calling that is invoked by JVM there is a need of filter. The data which is filtered is examined to recognize non-polymorphic and also polymorphic dispatches from where the values are derived. The tool that is implemented to capture all this related information is known as E-MTRACE [1].This tool uses JVMTI, JVM Tool Interface that is examined and control s the process of execution running in the JVM (Java Virtual Machine). File Hook is used to insert the byte codes into methods.JVM is interrupted by the File Hook, when the JVM is loading java .class file to heap. The File Hook inserts the profiling instrumentation code and interprets .class file before calling any method. During runtime the instrumentation code can be inserted. The instrumentation code is executed while calling a method. The program stack is used by the instrumentation code to recognize the Dispatch class. Then to trace the Declared interface it uses the Local Variable Table. EMTRACE Analyzer tool would be processed, once the Dispatched class and the Declared Interface are identified, which evaluate the list of non polymorphic and polymorphic dispatches results. B) Resharper and CodeRush. Resharper and CodeRush are the tools available to extend the native functionality of Microsoft Visual Studio latest versions These tools executes the static analysis of the code like error detection without compiling the code. These tools provides enhanced features like error correction, code generation, syntax highlighting, optimization, formatting and many other features. VIII CONCLUSION Considering quality factor, it is not an easy task to examine and to avoid the complexity, several properties mainly Polymorphism factor in Object oriented design has proposed and paid special attention by Application developers and Software Engineering Society. This Paper mainly discussed on Polymorphism metrics related to Static and Dynamic behavior with respect to Object Oriented Analysis [2] and focused on the Comparison among Chidamber Kemmerer metrics, MOOD(Metrics for Object Oriented Design) metrics and Polymorphism metrics. It is noted that (NOC-SPD) (DIT-SPA) from Chidamber Kemmerer and Polymorphism metrics are highly correlated [2]. In addition to that this Paper also discusses about tools like E-MTRACE which deals with Polymorphic behavior. E-MTRACE is a tool that is developed to measure java applications [1]. This Polymorphic behavior metric is used to examine the interface that has most polymorphic dispatches. So these interfaces may introduce the basis for new technology frameworks and APIs. Moreover, it is necessary to note that the metrics and measures capture the valuable related data from the starting phases of the product development lifecycle giving Engineers a chance to evaluate early fault prone area and advancing the quality factor and to maintain the continuing capability of Software product.